How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. 2014. Astronomy. Imprint of an ancient conflagration. Science 345(6199): 868–869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fekete, D.M., and Noden, D.M. 2013. Developmental biology. A transition in the middle ear. Science 339(6126): 1396–1397.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers Hollingsworth, J., Müller, K.H., and Hollingsworth, E.J. 2008. China: The end of the science superpowers. Nature 454(7203): 412–413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, B., Wang, L., Xu, M., Tao, H., Zou, J., Gao, D., Lan, L., Ning, H., Peng, J., and Cao, Y. 2014. Efficient hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely long lifetime: the effect of n-type interlayer. Sci. Rep. 4: 7198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Selyanin, M.A., Boykov, P.Y., Khabarov, V.N., and Polyak, F. 2015. Hyaluronic Acid. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mandelker, L., and Vajdovich, P. (Editors). 2011. Studies on Veterinary Medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Boutet, A., Frey, D., Jégou, A., Kermarrec, A.-M., and Ribeiro, H.B. 2013. FreeRec: An Anonymous and Distributed Personalization Architecture. In Networked Systems: First International Conference, NETYS 2013, Marrakech, Morocco, May 2-4, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Edited by V. Gramoli and R. Guerraoui. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 58–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, July 2. Robot Kills Worker at Volkswagen Plant in Germany. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Problems Found With Government Acquisition and Use of Computers From November 1965 to December 1976. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Einziger, H. 2010. Incidence Hopf algebras: Antipodes, forest formulas, and noncrossing partitions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, J. 2017, August 1. Inside a Jail in Brooklyn, The Women Live in Fear. New York Times: A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fekete and Noden 2013; Bromm 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fekete and Noden 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles