How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Emlen, D.J. 2001. Costs and the diversification of exaggerated animal structures. Science 291(5508): 1534–1536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazazzera, B.A., and Hughes, D. 2015. Genetics: Location affects sporulation. Nature 525(7567): 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cicerone, R.J., Molina, M.J., and Blake, D.R. 2012. Retrospective. F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Science 336(6078): 170.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gavrilović, T.V., Jovanović, D.J., Lojpur, V., and Dramićanin, M.D. 2014. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method. Sci. Rep. 4: 4209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1994. Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fiadeiro, J.L., and Schobbens, P.-Y. (Editors). 2007. Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques: 18th International Workshop, WADT 2006, La Roche en Ardenne, Belgium, June 1-3, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kovács, P. 2010. Characterization of the Runoff Regime and Its Stability in the Danube Catchment. In Hydrological Processes of the Danube River Basin: Perspectives from the Danubian Countries. Edited by M. Brilly. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 143–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, June 7. What Would Happen If Humans Suddenly Disappeared From The Planet? IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Data Processing Costs Can Be Reduced at Army and Air Force Exchange Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock, M. 2010. Memoir as contemporary myth. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. 2012, December 14. Moody’s Downgrade Deepens Puerto Rico’s Economic Problems. New York Times: B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Emlen 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Emlen 2001; Lazazzera and Hughes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazazzera and Hughes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gavrilović et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles