How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joffre, M. 2007. Comment on “Coherent control of retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin.” Science 317(5837): 453; author reply 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mears, C.A., and Wentz, F.J. 2005. The effect of diurnal correction on satellite-derived lower tropospheric temperature. Science 309(5740): 1548–1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mizukami, T., Wallis, S.R., and Yamamoto, J. 2004. Natural examples of olivine lattice preferred orientation patterns with a flow-normal a-axis maximum. Nature 427(6973): 432–436.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Denker, J.A., Zuckerman, D.M., Maroney, P.A., and Nilsen, T.W. 2002. New components of the spliced leader RNP required for nematode trans-splicing. Nature 417(6889): 667–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yavaş, M. 2011. Applied English Phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Baldoni, M., Chopra, A.K., Son, T.C., Hirayama, K., and Torroni, P. (Editors). 2016. PRIMA 2016: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 19th International Conference, Phuket, Thailand, August 22-26, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chelala, P. 2008. A Europe of Values: From Shared History to Common Objectives. In Public Opinion Polling in a Globalized World. Edited by M. Carballo and U. Hjelmar. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 43–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, July 25. Newly Discovered Gut Virus Is In At Least Half of All Humans. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Amendment to FCC Rules Regarding a Plan for Cost-Sharing of Microwave Relocation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahmani, M. 2017. On the calculation of time-domain impulse-response of systems from band-limited scattering-parameters using wavelet transform. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2005, June 3. World Briefing | Asia: Agreement On Last Leg Of Border. New York Times: A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joffre 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mears and Wentz 2005; Joffre 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mears and Wentz 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Denker et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles