How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Epstein, I.R. 2007. Chemistry. Can droplets and bubbles think? Science 315(5813): 775–776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, F., and Stern, S. 2015. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Linking and leveraging. Science 348(6240): 1203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, S.-H., Kwan, A.C., and Dan, Y. 2014. Interneuron subtypes and orientation tuning. Nature 508(7494): E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, W., ten Berge, D., Brown, J., Ahn, S., Hu, L.A., Miller, W.E., Caron, M.G., Barak, L.S., Nusse, R., and Lefkowitz, R.J. 2003. Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4. Science 301(5638): 1391–1394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzinski, J., Abu-Rub, H., and Strankowski, P. 2015. Variable Speed AC Drives with Inverter Output Filters. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Levitt, S.H., Purdy, J.A., Perez, C.A., and Poortmans, P. (Editors). 2012. Technical Basis of Radiation Therapy: Practical Clinical Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pin, J.-É. 2013. An Explicit Formula for the Intersection of Two Polynomials of Regular Languages. In Developments in Language Theory: 17th International Conference, DLT 2013, Marne-la-Vallée, France, June 18-21, 2013. Proceedings. Edited by M.-P. Béal and O. Carton. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 31–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, August 6. What Happens When You Put Metal In A Microwave? IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Vulnerabilities of Telecommunications Systems to Unauthorized Use. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevin, M.J. 2017. Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. 2015, December 18. Cancer, Scourge of Affluent Nations. New York Times: D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Epstein 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Epstein 2007; Murray and Stern 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Stern 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles