How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willerroider, M. 2004. Making the move into drug sales. Nature 430(6998): 486–487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunn, P.P., and Joiner, S.D. 2009. Certificates should be strengthened. Science 323(5919): 1289–90; author reply 1298-90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niu, M., Cheng, D., and Cao, D. 2014. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 heterojunctions: promising TiO2-based photocatalysts under visible light. Sci. Rep. 4: 4810.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sanvitto, D., Pulizzi, F., Shields, A.J., Christianen, P.C., Holmes, S.N., Simmons, M.Y., Ritchie, D.A., Maan, J.C., and Pepper, M. 2001. Observation of charge transport by negatively charged excitons. Science 294(5543): 837–839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rohde, U.L., Jain, G.C., Poddar, A.K., and Ghosh, A.K. 2011. Introduction to Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kida, S. (Editor). 2006. IUTAM Symposium on Elementary Vortices and Coherent Structures: Significance in Turbulence Dynamics: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at Kyoto International Community House, Kyoto, Japan, 26-28 October 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohrehkesh, S., Fathy, M., and Yousefi, S. 2006. Prediction Based QoS Routing in MANETs. In Distributed Computing and Networking: 8th International Conference, ICDCN 2006, Guwahati, India, December 27-30, 2006. Proceedings. Edited by S. Chaudhuri, S.R. Das, H.S. Paul, and S. Tirthapura. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 46–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, June 30. NASA’s Juno Arrives At Jupiter To Lift Its Cloudy Veil – But First It Must Survive The Hostile Environment. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Talking Books for the Blind. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cubarrubia, A.P. 2009. Exploring the influence of external standards of institutional effectiveness on program assessment in student affairs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. 2009, June 19. 2 Families, and No Room for Guilt. New York Times: C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willerroider 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Willerroider 2004; Gunn and Joiner 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunn and Joiner 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sanvitto et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles