How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawkins, J.M. 2015. Organic chemistry: Streamlining drug synthesis. Nature 520(7547): 302–303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rambo, R.P., and Tainer, J.A. 2013. Accurate assessment of mass, models and resolution by small-angle scattering. Nature 496(7446): 477–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., de Sousa Lopes, S.M.C., and Surani, M.A. 2007. Germ cell specification in mice. Science 316(5823): 394–396.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nguyen, K.B., Watford, W.T., Salomon, R., Hofmann, S.R., Pien, G.C., Morinobu, A., Gadina, M., O’Shea, J.J., and Biron, C.A. 2002. Critical role for STAT4 activation by type 1 interferons in the interferon-gamma response to viral infection. Science 297(5589): 2063–2066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kasper, S., and Montgomery, S. 2013. Treatment-resistant Depression. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Bernack-Schüler, C., Erens, R., Leuders, T., and Eichler, A. (Editors). 2015. Views and Beliefs in Mathematics Education: Results of the 19th MAVI Conference. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Pacheco, F.T., and da Rocha, A.J. 2016. Ischemic Stroke in Children. In Critical Findings in Neuroradiology. Edited by R. Hoffmann Nunes, A.L. Abello, and M. Castillo. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 45–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, June 2. We Could Have Lasers More Powerful Than Exploding Stars In Just 5 Years. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Bilingual Education: A Necessity That Has Not Been Satisfied. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sydow, K. 2010. A life review and Memory Album program to enhance family communication in assisted living. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017, August 11. Mets, Dealing Slugger, Will Add a Player They Hope Will Be One. New York Times: B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawkins 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rambo and Tainer 2013; Hawkins 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rambo and Tainer 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nguyen et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles