How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta, L. 2006. Protein purification: proteomics at Harvard. Nature 439(7079): 1017.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, M.S., and Goodman, D.W. 2004. The structure of catalytically active gold on titania. Science 306(5694): 252–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brunton, B.W., Botvinick, M.M., and Brody, C.D. 2013. Rats and humans can optimally accumulate evidence for decision-making. Science 340(6128): 95–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alard, O., Luguet, A., Pearson, N.J., Griffin, W.L., Lorand, J.-P., Gannoun, A., Burton, K.W., and O’Reilly, S.Y. 2005. In situ Os isotopes in abyssal peridotites bridge the isotopic gap between MORBs and their source mantle. Nature 436(7053): 1005–1008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cruz, M.G., Peters, G.W., and Shevchenko, P.V. 2015. Fundamental Aspects of Operational Risk and Insurance Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cerone, A., Persico, D., Fernandes, S., Garcia-Perez, A., Katsaros, P., Shaikh, S.A., and Stamelos, I. (Editors). 2014. Information Technology and Open Source: Applications for Education, Innovation, and Sustainability: SEFM 2012 Satellite Events, InSuEdu, MoKMaSD, and OpenCert Thessaloniki, Greece, October 1–2, 2012 Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders, A.R. 2014. Genetics of Schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment. Edited by P.G. Janicak, S.R. Marder, R. Tandon, and M. Goldman. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2015, October 13. How Gaming Impacts Childrens’ Academic Achievements. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. [Comments on Protection of Pricing Information Under GSA Procurement for Telecommunications Services]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff, H.K. 2013. Thumb Twiddle Glossolalia: The Soumage. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2017, January 16. Daughter, You’ve Turned Into Your Mother. New York Times: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Goodman 2004; Bonetta 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Goodman 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Alard et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles