How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harnett, M.M. 2006. Immunology. B cells spread and gather. Science 312(5774): 709–710.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMurray, M.A., and Gottschling, D.E. 2003. An age-induced switch to a hyper-recombinational state. Science 301(5641): 1908–1911.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tamsir, A., Tabor, J.J., and Voigt, C.A. 2011. Robust multicellular computing using genetically encoded NOR gates and chemical “wires.” Nature 469(7329): 212–215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Esplugues, E., Huber, S., Gagliani, N., Hauser, A.E., Town, T., Wan, Y.Y., O’Connor, W., Jr, Rongvaux, A., Van Rooijen, N., Haberman, A.M., Iwakura, Y., Kuchroo, V.K., Kolls, J.K., Bluestone, J.A., Herold, K.C., and Flavell, R.A. 2011. Control of TH17 cells occurs in the small intestine. Nature 475(7357): 514–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard, P. 2013. Competitive Quality Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Zhou, G., Li, J., Zhao, D., and Feng, Y. (Editors). 2013. Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Veloso, E., and Guimarães, P. 2014. Education and Empowerment in Later Life. In Learning across Generations in Europe: Contemporary Issues in Older Adult Education. Edited by B. Schmidt-Hertha, S.J. Krašovec, and M. Formosa. SensePublishers, Rotterdam. pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, June 22. Filefish can Camouflage in just 2 Seconds. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Internet of Things: Communities Deploy Projects by Combining Federal Support with Other Funds and Expertise. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barajas, D. 2010. The marginalization of Zitkala-Ša and Wendy Rose. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, H., Shear, M.D., and Searcey, D. 2017, September 26. Travel Ban on Chad Could Harm American Interests, Officials Say. New York Times: A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harnett 2006).
This sentence cites two references (McMurray and Gottschling 2003; Harnett 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McMurray and Gottschling 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Esplugues et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Microbiology
AbbreviationCan. J. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1480-3275
ISSN (online)0008-4166
Molecular Biology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
General Medicine

Other styles