How to format your references using the Contact Lens and Anterior Eye citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling G. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Imaging Spat Pits Amateur Against Pros. Science 2000;288:2110–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieux-Laucat F, Casanova J-L. Immunology. Autoimmunity by haploinsufficiency. Science 2014;345:1560–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray B, Huntress WT Jr, Friedman LD. Mars outposts: a planetary society approach to exploration. Nature 2001;412:254–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Verlet JRR, Bragg AE, Kammrath A, Cheshnovsky O, Neumark DM. Observation of large water-cluster anions with surface-bound excess electrons. Science 2005;307:93–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baines P, Ferraro J, Rogers P. The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Eighteenth-Century Writers and Writing 1660 - 1789. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Kamat RK. Unleash the System On Chip using FPGAs and Handel C. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Camilleri D, Damianou A, Jackson H, Lawrence N, Prescott T. iCub Visual Memory Inspector: Visualising the iCub’s Thoughts. In: Lepora NF, Mura A, Mangan M, Verschure PFMJ, Desmulliez M, Prescott TJ, editors. Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: 5th International Conference, Living Machines 2016, Edinburgh, UK, July 19-22, 2016. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 48–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contact Lens and Anterior Eye.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Spot A Star Being Ripped Apart By A Black Hole. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FBI Is Taking Steps to Develop an Enterprise Architecture, but Much Remains to Be Accomplished. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steers AV. Releasing from the inside out: The development of the role of Helene in “Festen.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Bold Talk On Gangs And Sugar. New York Times 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContact Lens and Anterior Eye
AbbreviationCont. Lens Anterior Eye
ISSN (print)1367-0484
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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