How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
East, R., 2013. Microbiome: Soil science comes to life. Nature 501, S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keller, C.B., Schoene, B., 2012. Statistical geochemistry reveals disruption in secular lithospheric evolution about 2.5 Gyr ago. Nature 485, 490–493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Häusser, M., Major, G., Stuart, G.J., 2001. Differential shunting of EPSPs by action potentials. Science 291, 138–141.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, J.-O., Tsuru, T., Kodaira, S., Cummins, P.R., Kaneda, Y., 2002. Splay fault branching along the Nankai subduction zone. Science 297, 1157–1160.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wittcoff, H.A., Reuben, B.G., Plotkin, J.S., 2012. Industrial Organic Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Oliehoek, F.A., 2016. A Concise Introduction to Decentralized POMDPs, SpringerBriefs in Intelligent Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Multiagent Systems, and Cognitive Robotics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kliučininkas, L., Račys, V., Radžiūnienė, I., Jankūnaitė, D., 2015. Collective Versus Household Iron Removal from Groundwater at Villages in Lithuania, in: Leal Filho, W., Sümer, V. (Eds.), Sustainable Water Use and Management: Examples of New Approaches and Perspectives, Green Energy and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 91–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Elon Musk Hints At Sending Humans Beyond Mars With “Interplanetary Transport System” Spacecraft [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Month In Review: December 1998: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications (No. OPA-99-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, S., 2014. Teacher Induction Programs: How Key Components Influence Teacher Retention Rates in Rural School Districts (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2010. Local, Fresh and in Season. New York Times NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (East, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (East, 2013; Keller and Schoene, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keller and Schoene, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
AbbreviationEcotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
ISSN (print)0147-6513
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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