How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crane, B.R., 2012. Biochemistry. Nature’s intricate clockwork. Science 337, 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin, H., Iwasaki, A., 2012. A vaccine strategy that protects against genital herpes by establishing local memory T cells. Nature 491, 463–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitmore, D., Foulkes, N.S., Sassone-Corsi, P., 2000. Light acts directly on organs and cells in culture to set the vertebrate circadian clock. Nature 404, 87–91.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferguson, N.M., Ghani, A.C., Donnelly, C.A., Hagenaars, T.J., Anderson, R.M., 2002. Estimating the human health risk from possible BSE infection of the British sheep flock. Nature 415, 420–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, M., McKimm, J., Forrest, K., 2013. How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kind, P., Brooks, R., Rabin, R. (Eds.), 2005. EQ-5D concepts and methods: A developmental history. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou, C.-J., Conley, C., 2009. Engaging Experience: A New Perspective of User Experience with Physical Products, in: Kurosu, M. (Ed.), Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Modern Slavery Is Destroying The Environment – To Meet Demand For Shrimps And Pet Food [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s and NASA’s Research and Development Plans for Noise Reduction Are Aligned but the Prospects of Achieving Noise Reduction Goals Are Uncertain (No. GAO-08-384). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batistick, S.A., 2015. Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Melnick, D.J., Pearl, M.C., Warfield, J., 2015. Make Forests Pay. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crane, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crane, 2012; Shin and Iwasaki, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shin and Iwasaki, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferguson et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
AbbreviationEcotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
ISSN (print)0147-6513
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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