How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dajani, R., 2013. Universities must inspire students as well as teach. Nature 502, 411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birren, S.J., Marder, E., 2013. Neuroscience. Plasticity in the neurotransmitter repertoire. Science 340, 436–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rood, R.T., Bania, T.M., Balser, D.S., 2002. Cosmology. The saga of 3He. Science 295, 804–805.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shelton, A.O., Samhouri, J.F., Stier, A.C., Levin, P.S., 2014. Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish. Sci. Rep. 4, 7110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R.G., 2004. Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Deutsch, J.S. (Ed.), 2010. Hox Genes: Studies from the 20th to the 21st Century, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Patterson, J., 2015. Segregation and Desegregation in Parsons, Kansas, in: Noblit, G.W. (Ed.), School Desegregation: Oral Histories toward Understanding the Effects of White Domination. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Abrupt Climate Warming, Not Cold Snaps, Kicked Off Megafauna Extinction: Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain (No. NSIAD-93-137). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mikhailik, Y., 2013. Longing Limned (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico, J., 2016. A Jail Officer Is Fatally Shot In Brooklyn. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dajani, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Birren and Marder, 2013; Dajani, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birren and Marder, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Shelton et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
AbbreviationEcotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
ISSN (print)0147-6513
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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