How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glass, L., 2003. Obituary: Arthur T. Winfree (1942-2002). Nature 421, 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aggarwal, B.D., Calvi, B.R., 2004. Chromatin regulates origin activity in Drosophila follicle cells. Nature 430, 372–376.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ballester, G.E., Sing, D.K., Herbert, F., 2007. The signature of hot hydrogen in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Nature 445, 511–514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chiu, A.S., Gehringer, M.M., Braidy, N., Guillemin, G.J., Welch, J.H., Neilan, B.A., 2013. Gliotoxicity of the cyanotoxin, β-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA). Sci. Rep. 3, 1482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A., 2012. Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Coronado, D., Acosta, M., Cerbán, M. del M., López, M. del P. (Eds.), 2006. Economic Impact of the Container Traffic at the Port of Algeciras Bay. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kato, S., 2016. Ubiquitous Wireless Communications Beyond 2050, in: Prasad, R., Dixit, S. (Eds.), Wireless World in 2050 and Beyond: A Window into the Future!, Springer Series in Wireless Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Four Myths About Diabetes Debunked [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Administration of Family Planning Grants Awarded to Genesee Family Planning Program, Inc (No. HRD-78-24). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson, S.L., 2014. “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2016. Momentum for Tax Reform, Thanks to Trump’s Tactics. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glass, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Aggarwal and Calvi, 2004; Glass, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aggarwal and Calvi, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
AbbreviationEcotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
ISSN (print)0147-6513
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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