How to format your references using the Journal of Research in Science Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Research in Science Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunbar, R. (2003). Psychology. Evolution of the social brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1160–1161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sergeev, A. G., & Hartwig, J. F. (2011). Selective, nickel-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of aryl ethers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6028), 439–443.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, B. A., Hewins, R. H., & Yu, Y. (2000). Evaporation in the young solar nebula as the origin of “just-right” melting of chondrules. Nature, 406(6796), 600–602.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, Y.-Y., Inoue, A., Chang, C., Liu, J., Shen, B., Wang, X., & Li, R.-W. (2014). Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses. Scientific Reports, 4, 5733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher, V. M. (2015). Seismic Loads. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arezes, P. (Ed.). (2016). Advances in Safety Management and Human Factors: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Safety Management and Human Factors , July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA (Vol. 491). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Costa, S. O., Nedjah, N., & de Macedo Mourelle, L. (2010). Automatic Modeling of Fuzzy Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization. In L. Rutkowski, R. Scherer, R. Tadeusiewicz, L. A. Zadeh, & J. M. Zurada (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 10th International Conference, ICAISC 2010, Zakopane, Poland, June 13-17, 2010, Part I (pp. 35–42). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 26). Scientists Have Reconstructed The Hearing Abilities Of Our Ancestors. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Social Security Administration: Information Systems Could Improve Processing Attorney Fee Payments in Disability Program (GAO-01-796). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scaringe, J. G. (2010). An investigation into the faculty development practices in chiropractic education programs [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017, June 23). A Sequel of Sorts, Made to Challenge Singers. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunbar, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dunbar, 2003; Sergeev & Hartwig, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sergeev & Hartwig, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Cohen et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Research in Science Teaching
AbbreviationJ. Res. Sci. Teach.
ISSN (print)0022-4308
ISSN (online)1098-2736

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