How to format your references using the Journal of Research in Science Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Research in Science Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsworth, R. L. (2004). Applied physics. The maser at 50. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 236–237.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael, A., & Klenerman, P. (2002). HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5572), 1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Caraveo-Frescas, J. A., Khan, M. A., & Alshareef, H. N. (2014). Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility. Scientific Reports, 4, 5243.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, J. F., Huang, Y. F., Ding, Y., Yang, Z. L., Li, S. B., Zhou, X. S., … Tian, Z. Q. (2010). Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Nature, 464(7287), 392–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Memming, R. (2015). Semiconductor Electrochemistry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Golomb, S. W., Parker, M. G., Pott, A., & Winterhof, A. (Eds.). (2008). Sequences and Their Applications - SETA 2008: 5th International Conference Lexington, KY, USA, September 14-18, 2008 Proceedings (Vol. 5203). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tuunanen, T., Koskinen, J., & Kärkkäinen, T. (2006). Retrieving Open Source Software Licenses. In E. Damiani, B. Fitzgerald, W. Scacchi, M. Scotto, & G. Succi (Eds.), Open Source Systems: IFIP Working Group 2.13 Foundation on Open Source Software, June 8–10, 2006, Como, Italy (pp. 35–46). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 11). Outstanding Time-Lapse of a Stellar Explosion From Hubble. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). School Meal Programs: Sharing Information on Best Practices May Improve Programs’ Operations (No. RCED-97-126). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Creed, C. K. (2017). Identifying Controls on Patterns of Intermittent Streamflow in Three Streams of the American Southwest: A Geospatial Approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, July 18). Olympic Dream Vacations, Minus Tickets. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2013; Nolet, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McMichael & Klenerman, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Caraveo-Frescas, Khan, & Alshareef, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Research in Science Teaching
AbbreviationJ. Res. Sci. Teach.
ISSN (print)0022-4308
ISSN (online)1098-2736

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