How to format your references using the Journal of Research in Science Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Research in Science Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prewitt, K. (2004). Sociology. What if we give a census and no one comes? Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1452–1453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conover, D. O., & Munch, S. B. (2002). Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5578), 94–96.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hägglund, C., Grätzel, M., & Kasemo, B. (2003). Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (II). Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5640), 1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Makarov, E. M., Makarova, O. V., Urlaub, H., Gentzel, M., Will, C. L., Wilm, M., & Lührmann, R. (2002). Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein remodeling during catalytic activation of the spliceosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2205–2208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clayton, L. A. (2010). Bartolomé de las Casas and the Conquest of the Americas. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hesketh, P. J. (Ed.). (2008). BioNanoFluidic MEMS. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamazaki, N., Takaishi, T., Toyooka, M., Nagakura, K., Sagawa, A., & Yano, H. (2008). Wind Tunnel Tests on the Control of Aeroacoustic Noise from High Speed Train. In B. Schulte-Werning, D. Thompson, P.-E. Gautier, C. Hanson, B. Hemsworth, J. Nelson, … P. de Vos (Eds.), Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Railway Noise, Munich, Germany, 4 - 8 September 2007 (pp. 33–39). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 16). What Exactly Is Happening When Your Knuckles Crack? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). United States Merchant Marine Academy: Internal Control Weaknesses Resulted in Improper Sources and Uses of Funds; Some Corrective Actions Are Under Way (No. GAO-09-635). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, A. (2009). Borderland beyond: Korean migrants and the creation of a modern state boundary between Korea and Russia, 1860-1937 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, April 1). Few Voters Show Up to Elect Two Democrats. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prewitt, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Conover & Munch, 2002; Prewitt, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conover & Munch, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Hägglund, Grätzel, & Kasemo, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Makarov et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Research in Science Teaching
AbbreviationJ. Res. Sci. Teach.
ISSN (print)0022-4308
ISSN (online)1098-2736

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