How to format your references using the Journal of Research in Science Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Research in Science Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McEwen, A. S. (2002). Planetary science. Active volcanism on Io. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5590), 2220–2221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Radisky, D. C., & Bissell, M. J. (2004). Cancer. Respect thy neighbor! Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 775–777.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ichimura, T., Fujiwara, K., & Tanaka, H. (2014). Dual field effects in electrolyte-gated spinel ferrite: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions. Scientific Reports, 4, 5818.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Park, S.-W., Kaimoyo, E., Kumar, D., Mosher, S., & Klessig, D. F. (2007). Methyl salicylate is a critical mobile signal for plant systemic acquired resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5847), 113–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhalla, S., Moharana, S., Talakokula, V., & Kaur, N. (2016). Piezoelectric Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Haynes, G. (Ed.). (2009). American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Crowder, J. A., & Friess, S. (2015). Productivity Tools for the Modern Team. In S. Friess (Ed.), Agile Project Management: Managing for Success (pp. 43–48). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, November 30). Chinese Astronaut Says He Heard A Strange Knocking Sound While In Space. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center: Cost Growth and Other Factors Affect Closure and Privatization (NSIAD-95-60). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prima, M. B. (2012). Waiting for Lefty: Adversity and the American Dream [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, October 8). A Decision on a Convicted Killer Looses a Rush of Musical Memories. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McEwen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (McEwen, 2002; Radisky & Bissell, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Radisky & Bissell, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ichimura et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Park et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Research in Science Teaching
AbbreviationJ. Res. Sci. Teach.
ISSN (print)0022-4308
ISSN (online)1098-2736

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