How to format your references using the Journal of Research in Science Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Research in Science Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, M. (2000). Feedback control of intercellular signalling in development. Nature, 408(6810), 313–319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fetler, L., & Amigorena, S. (2005). Neuroscience. Brain under surveillance: the microglia patrol. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5733), 392–393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parkin, S. S. P., Hayashi, M., & Thomas, L. (2008). Magnetic domain-wall racetrack memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5873), 190–194.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Denisov, D., Dang, M. T., Struth, B., Wegdam, G., & Schall, P. (2013). Resolving structural modifications of colloidal glasses by combining x-ray scattering and rheology. Scientific Reports, 3, 1631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glasgow, L. A. (2014). Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Villafuerte, J. (Ed.). (2015). Modern Cold Spray: Materials, Process, and Applications (1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, R., Emmerich, M. T. M., Eggermont, J., Bovenkamp, E. G. P., Bäck, T., Dijkstra, J., & Reiber, J. H. C. (2006). Mixed-Integer NK Landscapes. In T. P. Runarsson, H.-G. Beyer, E. Burke, J. J. Merelo-Guervós, L. D. Whitley, & X. Yao (Eds.), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN IX: 9th International Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 9-13, 2006, Proceedings (pp. 42–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 7). UK Solar Panels Produced More Energy Than Coal For An Unprecedented Six Months. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Inadequacies in Data Processing Planning in the Department of Commerce (FGMSD-78-27). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patel, D. S. (2017). GoSchoolPro: A Web Portal for the Students Using MVC Architecture and ASP.NET Framework [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2017, April 25). First Americans: This Dog Is Quite Proud, Despite All Appearances. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freeman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Fetler & Amigorena, 2005; Freeman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fetler & Amigorena, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Parkin et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Denisov et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Research in Science Teaching
AbbreviationJ. Res. Sci. Teach.
ISSN (print)0022-4308
ISSN (online)1098-2736

Other styles