How to format your references using the Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stöhr K. Vaccinate before the next pandemic? Nature. 2010;465(7295):161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waterhouse PM, Fusaro AF. Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science. 2006;313(5783):54-55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Widom CS, Czaja SJ, DuMont KA. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias? Science. 2015;347(6229):1480-1485.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baublitz M, Lane C, Lin H, et al. A Minimal tight-binding model for ferromagnetic canted bilayer manganites. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Takezawa K. Introduction to Nonparametric Regression: Takezawa/Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Yan X-T, Jiang C, Eynard B, eds. Advanced Design and Manufacture to Gain a Competitive Edge: New Manufacturing Techniques and Their Role in Improving Enterprise Performance. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordlinger B. Surgery and Chemotherapy Combined for Colorectal Liver Metastases. In: Habib NA, Canelo R, eds. Liver and Pancreatic Diseases Management. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US; 2006:29-30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Davis J. Half Of All Life May Be Extinct Within A Century. IFLScience. Published February 27, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student and Exchange Visitor Program: DHS Needs to Take Actions to Strengthen Monitoring of Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rollo E. Effect of the Stoplight Diet and mode of intervention on triglyceride production in a veteran population. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. A Costly Retraction for CNN And an Opening for Trump. New York Times. June 28, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology Case Reports
AbbreviationUrol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-4420

Other styles