How to format your references using the Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Back to life. Nature. 2004;429(6990):483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lea AM, Ryan MJ. SEXUAL SELECTION. Irrationality in mate choice revealed by túngara frogs. Science. 2015;349(6251):964-966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM. Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification. Nature. 2000;403(6771):734-740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Reusser LJ, Bierman PR, Pavich MJ, Zen EA, Larsen J, Finkel R. Rapid late Pleistocene incision of Atlantic passive-margin river gorges. Science. 2004;305(5683):499-502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aquino JA. The International Family Guide to US University Admissions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Reidsma D, Choi I, Bargar R, eds. Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment: 6th International Conference, INTETAIN 2014, Chicago, IL, USA, July 9-11, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 136. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Luks AM, Hopkins SR. Lung Function and Gas Exchange. In: Swenson ER, Bärtsch P, eds. High Altitude: Human Adaptation to Hypoxia. Springer; 2014:57-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Systematic Review Finds Side Effects Of Vaccines Are Extremely Rare. IFLScience. Published July 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of the Current Modernization Program and Planning for the Next Generation System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman BP. Understanding the Factors Affecting Local Emergency Service Collaboration. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. (Early) Spring Reading. New York Times. March 17, 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology Case Reports
AbbreviationUrol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-4420

Other styles