How to format your references using the Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohman A. Psychology. Conditioned fear of a face: a prelude to ethnic enmity? Science. 2005;309(5735):711-713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ji H, Zweibel E. Plasma physics. Understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas. Science. 2015;347(6225):944-945.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taguchi A, Wartschow LM, White MF. Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis. Science. 2007;317(5836):369-372.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Struzhkin VV, Eremets MI, Gan W, Mao H-K, Hemley RJ. Superconductivity in dense lithium. Science. 2002;298(5596):1213-1215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ray Chaudhuri N, Chaudhuri B, Majumder R, Yazdani A. Multi-Terminal Direct-Current Grids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Sorensen A, Okata J, eds. Megacities: Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability. Vol 10. Springer Japan; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain V, Verma SK. Pharmacological Investigations and Toxicity Studies. In: Verma SK, ed. Pharmacology of Bombax Ceiba Linn. SpringerBriefs in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Springer; 2012:51-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Elon Musk’s Moving “Solid Metal Snake” Charge A Tesla Car. IFLScience. Published August 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowda V. Pollination biology and inter-island geographical variation in the mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-hummingbird (Trochilidae) interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruprecht T. In Too Deep. New York Times. July 7, 2011:MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology Case Reports
AbbreviationUrol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-4420

Other styles