How to format your references using the Urology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaefer BF. Geochemistry. When do rocks become oil? Science. 2005;308(5726):1267-1268.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto K, Tanaka K. Neuroscience. Conflict and cognitive control. Science. 2004;303(5660):969-970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conway SL, Shinbrot T, Glasser BJ. A Taylor vortex analogy in granular flows. Nature. 2004;431(7007):433-437.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cao S, Zhao H, Kang B, Zhang J, Ren W. Temperature induced spin switching in SmFeO3 single crystal. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5960.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander CF. Where Is American Literature? Wiley Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Kearney A, ed. Exclusion from and Within School: Issues and Solutions. Vol 14. SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Sasso M, Chiappini G, Rossi M, Amodio D. Strain Assessment in Cracked Sheet Metals by Optical Grid Method. In: Jin H, Sciammarella C, Yoshida S, Lamberti L, eds. Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing; 2015:39-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Women Suffer The Myths Of The Hymen And The Virginity Test. IFLScience. Published December 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Perkins Student Loans: Options That Could Make the Program More Financially Independent. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milliken DE. Blood Pressure Measurement in the Primary Care Provider Setting: A Project Evaluating the Blood Pressure Technique of Nursing Staff. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P, Shear MD. Shifting Tone, President Saves Dark Words for a Faith’s Fringe. New York Times. May 21, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology Case Reports
AbbreviationUrol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-4420

Other styles