How to format your references using the European Journal of Radiology Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Radiology Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.D. Kuo, Biophysics. Harvesting energy by improving the economy of human walking, Science. 309 (2005) 1686–1687.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.M. Trent, J.W. Touchman, Cancer. The gene topography of cancer, Science. 318 (2007) 1079–1080.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.-W. Li, E. Oh, J.S. Weissman, The anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence drives translational pausing and codon choice in bacteria, Nature. 484 (2012) 538–541.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.R. Kataoka, A. Kumanogoh, M. Hirata, K. Moriyoshi, C. Ueshima, M. Kawahara, T. Tsuruyama, H. Haga, CD72 regulates the growth of KIT-mutated leukemia cell line Kasumi-1, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Zhang, X. Wang, Chaos Analysis and Chaotic EMI Suppression of DC-DC Converters, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
J. Pe’er, A.D. Singh, eds., Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Eyelid and Conjunctival Tumors, 2nd ed. 2014, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. del Pilar Agustín Llach, A.F. Fontecha, Lexical Variation in Learners’ Responses to Cue Words: The Effect of Gender, in: R.M. Jiménez Catalán (Ed.), Lexical Availability in English and Spanish as a Second Language, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Radiology Open.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Every Time A Fig Is Born There Is A Wasp Massacre, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Department of Education Could Improve Its Monitoring and Assistance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.W. Bible, Integrating Heterogeneous Datasets for Functional Profiling of Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Magic Brews for Mets in Late Innings, Then Deserts Them Yet Again, New York Times. (2017) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Radiology Open
AbbreviationEur. J. Radiol. Open
ISSN (print)2352-0477

Other styles