How to format your references using the European Journal of Radiology Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Radiology Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G.E.W. Bauer, Applied physics. Mesmerizing semiconductors, Science. 306 (2004) 1898–1899.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Csabai, E. Szathmáry, Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus,” Science. 332 (2011) 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.W. Green 2nd, W.-P. Chen, M.R. Brudzinski, Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere, Nature. 467 (2010) 828–831.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.E. Biscaye, F.E. Grousset, A.M. Svensson, A. Bory, L.A. Barrie, Eurasian air pollution reaches eastern north america, Science. 290 (2000) 2258–2259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.F.D. Mackenzie, Places of Possibility, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Y. Chung, M. Yung, eds., Information Security Applications: 11th International Workshop, WISA 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, August 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
I.A.E. Atkinson, Introduced Mammals in a New Environment, in: R.B. Allen, W.G. Lee (Eds.), Biological Invasions in New Zealand, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 49–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Radiology Open.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Five Amazing Ultrasound Inventions Set To Change The World (And Not A Pregnancy Scan In Sight), IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Streamlining FHA’s Single Family Housing Operations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Tercero, Characterization and application of morpholino monolayers in nucleic acid diagnostics, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, A Superhero Who Defies Gravity, Despite a Heavy Burden, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Radiology Open
AbbreviationEur. J. Radiol. Open
ISSN (print)2352-0477

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