How to format your references using the Computing and Visualization in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing and Visualization in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloboda, J.: Q&A: Melodic psychologist. Interview by Jascha Hoffman. Nature. 506, 433 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolf, D., Goff, S.P.: Embryonic stem cells use ZFP809 to silence retroviral DNAs. Nature. 458, 1201–1204 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Barber, V.A., Juday, G.P., Finney, B.P.: Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature. 405, 668–673 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, D., Peng, S., Hartman, M.R., Gupton-Campolongo, T., Rice, E.J., Chang, A.K., Gu, Z., Lu, G.Q.M., Luo, D.: Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution. Sci. Rep. 3, 3165 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster, J., Shimonski, R.: GIMP Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA (2010)
An edited book
Raju, N.J., Gossel, W., Sudhakar, M. eds: Management of Natural Resources in a Changing Environment. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Munier, F.L., Schorderet, D.F.: Classification of Corneal Dystrophies on a Molecular Genetic Basis. In: Reinhard, T. and Larkin, F. (eds.) Cornea and External Eye Disease. pp. 83–100. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing and Visualization in Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Condition Called Tetrachromacy Allows This Artist To See 100 Million Colors,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Agreement Needed on DOD Guidelines for Exempting Certain ADP Equipment and Service Procurements From the Brooks Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladendorff, M.Z.: The effect of North American Electric Reliability Corporation critical infrastructure protection standards on bulk electric system reliability, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Chechnya Death Toll, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing and Visualization in Science
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1432-9360
ISSN (online)1433-0369
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
General Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles