How to format your references using the Computing and Visualization in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing and Visualization in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ambros, V.: The functions of animal microRNAs. Nature. 431, 350–355 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrlich, P.R., Kennedy, D.: Sustainability. Millennium assessment of human behavior. Science. 309, 562–563 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Runnels, L.W., Yue, L., Clapham, D.E.: TRP-PLIK, a bifunctional protein with kinase and ion channel activities. Science. 291, 1043–1047 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gleyzes, S., Kuhr, S., Guerlin, C., Bernu, J., Deléglise, S., Busk Hoff, U., Brune, M., Raimond, J.-M., Haroche, S.: Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature. 446, 297–300 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, S.: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
González-Aguilar, H., Ugalde, E. eds: Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Audeh, B., Beaune, P., Beigbeder, M.: Recall-Oriented Evaluation for Information Retrieval Systems. In: Lupu, M., Kanoulas, E., and Loizides, F. (eds.) Multidisciplinary Information Retrieval: 6th Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2013, Limassol, Cyprus, October 7-9, 2013. Proceedings. pp. 29–32. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing and Visualization in Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Citizen Scientists Find Five New Supernovae,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Public Education: Title I Services Provided to Students With Limited English Proficiency. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J.L.: Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; A Contest of 2 Generations, Molded by 2 Different Wars, (1992)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing and Visualization in Science
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1432-9360
ISSN (online)1433-0369
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
General Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles