How to format your references using the Computing and Visualization in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing and Visualization in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coyne, J.A.: Comment on “Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans.” Science. 313, 761; author reply 761 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Duggavathi, R., Murphy, B.D.: Development. Ovulation signals. Science. 324, 890–891 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Pickrell, J.K., Gilad, Y., Pritchard, J.K.: Comment on “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome.” Science. 335, 1302; author reply 1302 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schofield, L., Hewitt, M.C., Evans, K., Siomos, M.-A., Seeberger, P.H.: Synthetic GPI as a candidate anti-toxic vaccine in a model of malaria. Nature. 418, 785–789 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte, P., Corsi, P.: Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
Fonseca, F., Rodríguez, M.A., Levashkin, S. eds: GeoSpatial Semantics: Second International Conference, GeoS 2007, Mexico City, Mexico, November 29-30, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Brennan, G., Brooks, M.: Esteem, Norms of Participation and Public Goods Supply. In: Baake, P. and Borck, R. (eds.) Public Economics and Public Choice: Contributions in Honor of Charles B. Blankart. pp. 63–80. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing and Visualization in Science.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Starving Female Mantises Eat Males Without Having Sex First,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: S. 1657 and H.R. 4564, Research and Development Acts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bao, J.: Design enhancements in repetitive and interative learning control, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: Poised and Graceful Performers, but a Step Behind the Spotlight, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing and Visualization in Science
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1432-9360
ISSN (online)1433-0369
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
General Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles