How to format your references using the Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jorgensen RA. Plant science. A window on the sophistication of plants. Science 2011; 333: 1103–1104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vokrouhlicky D, Farinella P. Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature 2000; 407: 606–608.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronberg N, Natcheva R, Hedlund K. Microarthropods mediate sperm transfer in mosses. Science 2006; 313: 1255.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koebel CM, Vermi W, Swann JB, Zerafa N, Rodig SJ, Old LJ et al. Adaptive immunity maintains occult cancer in an equilibrium state. Nature 2007; 450: 903–907.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yanni SB. Translational ADMET for Drug Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Foresti S, Lopez J (eds.). Information Security Theory and Practice: 10th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 26–27, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Huiqin Z, Pingjian G, Jun M. Research on the Mode of Computer-Aided Translation Teaching Process. In: Wu Y (ed). Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 1. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, pp 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. WHO Declares Ebola A Public Health Emergency. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Transportation: New Starts Program Challenges and Preliminary Observations on Expediting Project Development. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai H. High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Tebow, Hitting .220, Receives a Promotion. New York Times. 2017; : D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
AbbreviationProstate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
ISSN (print)1365-7852
ISSN (online)1476-5608
ScopeCancer Research

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