How to format your references using the Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bobbert PA. Applied physics. Manipulating spin in organic spintronics. Science 2014; 345: 1450–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pastinen T, Hudson TJ. Cis-acting regulatory variation in the human genome. Science 2004; 306: 647–650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke M, Hsiang SM, Miguel E. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature 2015; 527: 235–239.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arakawa K, Ono K, Isshiki M, Mimura K, Uchikoshi M, Mori H. Observation of the one-dimensional diffusion of nanometer-sized dislocation loops. Science 2007; 318: 956–959.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary SA. Mastering Financial Accounting Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Vega L (ed.). Empires, Post-Coloniality and Interculturality: New Challenges for Comparative Education. SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang Q, Wen Z. Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions. In: Wen Z (ed). Thermodynamics of Materials. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp 157–206.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. It’s Not Just Hype – 3D Printing Is The Bridge To The Future. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Progress Made, but Challenges Persist in Meeting the Screening Mandate for Air Cargo. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Engel SM. Proform-antecedent linking in listeners with language impairments and unimpaired listeners. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Friends, Romans, Presidents. New York Times. 2017; : C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
AbbreviationProstate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
ISSN (print)1365-7852
ISSN (online)1476-5608
ScopeCancer Research

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