How to format your references using the Computers in Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers in Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Buchen, Snapshot: The guts of a dying star, Nature. 460 (2009) 671.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Klausner, P. Alonso, An attack on all fronts, Nature. 430 (2004) 930–931.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. D’Hondt, S. Rutherford, A.J. Spivack, Metabolic activity of subsurface life in deep-sea sediments, Science. 295 (2002) 2067–2070.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Zuwei, Z. Ning, S. Yu, L. Kunlan, Reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalysis for propylene epoxidation to propylene oxide, Science. 292 (2001) 1139–1141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. P. Wen, R. Ellis, N. S. Pujar, Vaccine Development and Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
R. Roth, E.A.M. Frost, C. Gevirtz, C.L.H. Atcheson, eds., The Role of Anesthesiology in Global Health: A Comprehensive Guide, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Kaminsky, S. Kallweit, M. Rossi, U. Morbiducci, L. Scalise, P. Verdonck, E.P. Tomasini, PIV Measurements of Flows in Artificial Heart Valves, in: A. Schroeder, C.E. Willert (Eds.), Particle Image Velocimetry: New Developments and Recent Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers in Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
T. Hale, Drug Lord’s Escaped Hippos Are Causing Chaos In Colombia, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA’s Choice of a Location for Its Proposed Lunar Curatorial Facility, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.W. Adams, Shepherd leadership of Church of God pastors and how this relates to ministerial effectiveness, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, UNDER THE DOME: On Stage; A 32-Year Congressman Joins The Attack on His Colleagues, New York Times. (1992) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers in Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationComput. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0010-4825
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Health Informatics

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