How to format your references using the Computers in Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers in Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Greenwood, Between hope and a hard place, Nature. 430 (2004) 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Saltmarsh, D. Shapira, Questions regarding nuclear emissions in cavitation experiments, Science. 297 (2002) 1603; discussion 1603.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Roche, D. Paillard, E. Cortijo, Constraints on the duration and freshwater release of Heinrich event 4 through isotope modelling, Nature. 432 (2004) 379–382.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Sugiura, A. Kita, Y. Shimizu, H. Shuntoh, S.O. Sio, T. Kuno, Feedback regulation of MAPK signalling by an RNA-binding protein, Nature. 424 (2003) 961–965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Ibrahim, Microcontroller Based Applied Digital Control, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
D. Forman, M. Jones, J. Thistlethwaite, eds., Leading Research and Evaluation in Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K.T. Hastings, M.P. Rausch, Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Cancer, in: D. Alberts, L.M. Hess (Eds.), Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 81–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers in Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Strap Cameras On Squid To Observe Their Flashy Behavior, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Public Transit: Transit Agencies’ Use of Contracting to Provide Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.-W.D. Liu, Isolation and Characterization of pco-1, which Encodes a Regulatory Protein that Controls Purine Degradation in Neurospora crassa, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Woman Who Is Miami Prosecutor Joins Clinton List for Justice Dept, New York Times. (1993) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers in Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationComput. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0010-4825
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Health Informatics

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