How to format your references using the Language in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien, Randall D. (2003). Physics. Topology from the bottom up. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299(5613):1671–73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Szell, Michael & Thurner, Stefan (2013). How women organize social networks different from men. Scientific reports 3:1214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilderson, Tom P.; Reimer, Paula J.; & Brown, Tom A. (2005). Geoscience. The boon and bane of radiocarbon dating. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5708):362–64.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Pandit, Pranav S.; Bunn, David A.; Pande, Satish A.; & Aly, Sharif S. (2013). Modeling highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission in wild birds and poultry in West Bengal, India. Scientific reports 3:2175.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, Mohamed M. (2006). Spacecraft Sensors. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xu, Jianzhong; Wu, Yulin; Zhang, Yangjun; & Zhang, Junyue (eds.) (2009). Fluid Machinery and Fluid Mechanics: 4th International Symposium (4th ISFMFE). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hofmann, Erik; Maucher, Daniel; Kotula, Martin; & Kreienbrink, Oliver (2014). Purchasing Performance Measurement on the Procurement Organization Level. In Daniel Maucher, Martin Kotula, & Oliver Kreienbrink (eds.), Performance Measurement and Incentive Systems in Purchasing: More Than Just Savings, 67–91.Professional Supply Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language in Society.

Blog post
Davis, Josh (2016). Tasmanian Devil Milk May Be A Source Of New Antibiotics. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Responsibilities, Actions, and Coordination of Federal Agencies in International Telecommunications Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, Daniel Wyatt (2012). An examination of the impact of computer-based animations and visualization sequence on student understanding of Hadley Cells in atmospheric circulation. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wogan, John (2016). Eat, Pray, Chill. New York Times M2124.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kamien 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kamien 2003; Szell & Thurner 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Szell & Thurner 2013)
  • Three authors: (Guilderson, Reimer, & Brown 2005)
  • 5 or more authors: (Pandit, Bunn, Pande, & Aly 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage in Society
AbbreviationLang. Soc.
ISSN (print)0047-4045
ISSN (online)1469-8013
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Sociology and Political Science

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