How to format your references using the Language in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrari, Gabriele (2015). Physics. Dynamics of a cold quantum gas. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347(6218):127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Menezes, Telmo & Roth, Camille (2014). Symbolic regression of generative network models. Scientific reports 4:6284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behnia, Kamran; Balicas, Luis; & Kopelevich, Yakov (2007). Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317(5845):1729–31.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Wendeln, Ann-Christin; Degenhardt, Karoline; Kaurani, Lalit; Gertig, Michael; Ulas, Thomas; Jain, Gaurav; Wagner, Jessica; Häsler, Lisa M.; Wild, Katleen; et al. (2018). Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks. Nature 556(7701):332–38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, Franklin B. (2008). Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Uden, Lorna; Sinclair, Jane; Tao, Yu-Hui; & Liberona, Dario (eds.) (2014). Learning Technology for Education in Cloud. MOOC and Big Data: Third International Workshop, LTEC 2014, Santiago, Chile, September 2-5, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Safa, Majeed & Watts, Meriel (2014). Energy Inputs In Pest Control Using Pesticides In New Zealand. In David Pimentel & Rajinder Peshin (eds.), Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems, Vol.3, 99–126. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language in Society.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen (2016). How Malaria Species Combine To Make Infections Worse. IFLScience. Online:; accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Oversight of DOJ Funds for Recreational Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forget, Mary A. (2012). Tumor Angiogenesis is all Tied up in Tie2-Expressing Macrophages. Doctoral dissertation. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Faludi, Susan (2016). Not Their Mother’s Candidate. New York Times SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferrari 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ferrari 2015; Menezes & Roth 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Menezes & Roth 2014)
  • Three authors: (Behnia, Balicas, & Kopelevich 2007)
  • 5 or more authors: (Wendeln et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage in Society
AbbreviationLang. Soc.
ISSN (print)0047-4045
ISSN (online)1469-8013
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Sociology and Political Science

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