How to format your references using the Language in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waldrop, M. Mitchell (2011). Physics meets cancer: The disruptor. Nature 474(7349):20–22.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone, Richard & Lavine, Marc (2014). Robots. The social life of robots. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346(6206):178–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kusky, T. M.; Li, J. H.; & Tucker, R. D. (2001). The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5519):1142–45.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Chang, Bingsheng; Chen, Yue; Zhao, Yingming; & Bruick, Richard K. (2007). JMJD6 is a histone arginine demethylase. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5849):444–47.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perl, Jason & DeMark, Thomas R. (2010). DeMark Indicators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kell, Marilyn (2014). Literacy and Language in East Asia: Shifting Meanings, Values and Approaches, Peter Kell (ed.). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Staab, Steffen; Scherp, Ansgar; Arndt, Richard; Troncy, Raphael; Grzegorzek, Marcin; Saathoff, Carsten; Schenk, Simon; & Hardman, Lynda (2008). Semantic Multimedia. In Cristina Baroglio, Piero A. Bonatti, Jan Małuszyński, Massimo Marchiori, Axel Polleres, & Sebastian Schaffert (eds.), Reasoning Web: 4th International Summer School 2008, Venice, Italy, September 7-11, 2008, Tutorial Lectures, 125–70.Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language in Society.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015). Flatworm Reproduces by Using its Penis to Inject Sperm Into its Head. IFLScience. Online:; accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Air Traffic Control: Timely Completion of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Software Is at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anaya, Susana (2009). Animo clinician training program for detection and treatment of depression during pregnancy and postpartum depression in low income Latina women a grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John (2017). ‘Central Park Jogger’ Series on Netflix. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Waldrop 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Waldrop 2011; Stone & Lavine 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stone & Lavine 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kusky, Li, & Tucker 2001)
  • 5 or more authors: (Chang, Chen, Zhao, & Bruick 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage in Society
AbbreviationLang. Soc.
ISSN (print)0047-4045
ISSN (online)1469-8013
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Sociology and Political Science

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