How to format your references using the Language in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poskett, James (2012). Mathematics: a life computed. Nature 486(7403):321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beveridge, Christine & Morris, Suzanne (2007). Order of merit. Nature 448(7152):508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L.; & Louie, Steven G. (2006). Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons. Nature 444(7117):347–49.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Zhang, Qi; Fujino, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Shizue; Hirano, Hiroshi; Cai, Songjie; Kitajima, Yuya; Xu, Jinhua; & Li, Xiao-Kang (2014). Generation and characterization of regulatory dendritic cells derived from murine induced pluripotent stem cells. Scientific reports 4:3979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn, Gerald J. & Doganaksoy, Necip (2011). A Career in Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ölveczky, Peter Csaba (ed.) (2010). Rewriting Logic and Its Applications: 8th International Workshop, WRLA 2010, Held as a Satellite Event of ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-21, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rousseaux, Germain (2013). The Basics of Water Waves Theory for Analogue Gravity. In Daniele Faccio, Francesco Belgiorno, Sergio Cacciatori, Vittorio Gorini, Stefano Liberati, & Ugo Moschella (eds.), Analogue Gravity Phenomenology: Analogue Spacetimes and Horizons, from Theory to Experiment, 81–107.Lecture Notes in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language in Society.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin (2016). King Arthur’s Birthplace May Have Just Been Found By Archaeologists. IFLScience. Online:; accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Transportation Security R&D: TSA and DHS Are Researching and Developing Technologies, but Need to Improve R&D Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barham, Oliver M. (2017). Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben (2017). Streaming Drives Up Music Sales in U.S., but Hold the Celebrations. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poskett 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Poskett 2012; Beveridge & Morris 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beveridge & Morris 2007)
  • Three authors: (Son, Cohen, & Louie 2006)
  • 5 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage in Society
AbbreviationLang. Soc.
ISSN (print)0047-4045
ISSN (online)1469-8013
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles