How to format your references using the Language in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo (2010). Applied physics. Pulling apart molecular magnetism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328(5984):1362–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlein, Y. & Jacobson, R. L. (2001). Hunger tolerance and Leishmania in sandflies. Nature 414(6860):168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven; & Gerber, Leah R. (2012). Conservation science: A market approach to saving the whales. Nature 481(7380):139–40.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Ihee, H.; Lobastov, V. A.; Gomez, U. M.; Goodson, B. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Ruan, C. Y.; & Zewail, A. H. (2001). Direct imaging of transient molecular structures with ultrafast diffraction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5503):458–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beiser, Leo (2005). Unified Optical Scanning Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yang, George (ed.) (2013). Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Communication, Electronics and Automation Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Purna Chand, K. & Narsimha, G. (2015). An Integrated Approach to Improve the Text Categorization Using Semantic Measures. In Lakhmi C. Jain, Himansu Sekhar Behera, Jyotsna Kumar Mandal, & Durga Prasad Mohapatra (eds.), Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 2: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014, 39–47.Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language in Society.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin (2017). Humpback Whale ‘Supergroups’ Seen Having Their Own Raves. IFLScience. Online:; accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Briefing on Air Force’s Response on Fee-For-Service Aerial Refueling. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornelius, Jennifer (2017). Five Minute Meditation Used to Impact Workplace Meetings. Doctoral dissertation. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky (2002). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Another Catholic Priest Barred. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jarillo-Herrero 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Jarillo-Herrero 2010; Schlein & Jacobson 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schlein & Jacobson 2001)
  • Three authors: (Costello, Gaines, & Gerber 2012)
  • 5 or more authors: (Ihee et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage in Society
AbbreviationLang. Soc.
ISSN (print)0047-4045
ISSN (online)1469-8013
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Sociology and Political Science

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