How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hublin, J.-J. (2014). Anthropology. How to build a Neandertal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6190), 1338–1339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, M. D., & Hastings, A. (2008). Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics. Nature, 456(7223), 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Izumikawa, T., Sato, B., & Kitagawa, H. (2014). Chondroitin sulfate is indispensable for pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Scientific reports, 4, 3701.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, H. C., Kim, S. J., Kim, K. S., Shin, H. C., & Yoon, J. W. (2000). Remission in models of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy using a single-chain insulin analogue. Nature, 408(6811), 483–488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayuela Valencia, R. (2013). The Future of the Chemical Industry by 2050. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ancona, V., & Strickland, E. (Eds.). (2014). Trends in Contemporary Mathematics (Vol. 8). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Babenyshev, S., & Rybakov, V. (2009). Describing Evolutions of Multi-Agent Systems. In J. D. Velásquez, S. A. Ríos, R. J. Howlett, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 13th International Conference, KES 2009, Santiago, Chile, September 28-30, 2009, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 38–45). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 8). Now With More Materials And More Colour, 2015 Is The Year To Try 3D Printing At Home. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Tax Systems Modernization: Time Tables for Critical Planning Documents (No. AIMD-93-81FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunkley, R. L. (2010). A mentoring program for adolescents in a placement facility: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 3). Mets’ Hobbled Rotation Takes Another Big Hit Before a Loss to the Nationals. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hublin 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Holland and Hastings 2008; Hublin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland and Hastings 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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