How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benford, G. (2000). Taking control. Nature, 406(6795), 462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gordon, L. M., & Joester, D. (2011). Nanoscale chemical tomography of buried organic-inorganic interfaces in the chiton tooth. Nature, 469(7329), 194–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno, T., Tada, K., & Watanabe, Y. (2009). Kinetochore geometry defined by cohesion within the centromere. Nature, 458(7240), 852–858.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Legros, M., Dehm, G., Arzt, E., & Balk, T. J. (2008). Observation of giant diffusivity along dislocation cores. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1646–1649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cunningham, V. (2011). Victorian Poetry Now. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mutsvairo, B. (Ed.). (2016). Digital Activism in the Social Media Era: Critical Reflections on Emerging Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dean, P., Tu, Y., & Xue, D. (2007). Process Planning, Scheduling and Control for One-of-a-Kind Production. In L. Wang & W. Shen (Eds.), Process Planning and Scheduling for Distributed Manufacturing (pp. 109–136). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 25). Greenland Glacier Just Shed A Chunk Of Ice The Size Of Manhattan. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Farmers Home Administration’s ADP Development Project--Current Status and Unresolved Problems (No. CED-80-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Limpert, S. M. (2017). A Qualitative Study of Learning Spaces at a Midwest Elementary School and its Relationship to Student Attitudes about Reading (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, June 24). A Once-Quiet Precinct Council Quarrels Over Its Makeup. New York Times, p. 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benford 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Benford 2000; Gordon and Joester 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gordon and Joester 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Legros et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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