How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pauluis, O. M. (2015). Atmospheric science. The global engine that could. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6221), 475–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sakaba, T., & Neher, E. (2003). Direct modulation of synaptic vesicle priming by GABA(B) receptor activation at a glutamatergic synapse. Nature, 424(6950), 775–778.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hines, P. J., Jasny, B. R., & Mervis, J. (2009). Adding a T to the three R’s. Education & technology. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5910), 53.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Evans, R. L., Hirth, G., Baba, K., Forsyth, D., Chave, A., & Mackie, R. (2005). Geophysical evidence from the MELT area for compositional controls on oceanic plates. Nature, 437(7056), 249–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Varrall, G. (2011). Making Telecoms Work. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Duplantier, B., Raimond, J.-M., & Rivasseau, V. (Eds.). (2009). The Spin: Poincaré Seminar 2007 (Vol. 55). Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodridge, H. S., & Underhill, D. M. (2008). Fungal Recognition by TLR2 and Dectin-1. In S. Bauer & G. Hartmann (Eds.), Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Innate Immunity (pp. 87–109). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 21). The March Of The King Crabs: A Warning From Antarctica. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings (No. NSIAD-96-77). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez Abadia, J. M. (2014). French for Spanish speakers: A contrastive study of English monolingual, bilingual, and plurilingual adult learners of French (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, January 14). For 239th-Ranked Player, Faith in Qualifying Pays Off. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pauluis 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pauluis 2015; Sakaba and Neher 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sakaba and Neher 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Evans et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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