How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009). Innovation strategy. Nature, 461(7264), 585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marcus, D. M., & Grollman, A. P. (2006). Science and government. Review for NCCAM is overdue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, J. S., Du, M., & Zajac, A. J. (2009). A vital role for interleukin-21 in the control of a chronic viral infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1572–1576.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zeng, Y., Lu, G., Wang, H., Du, J., Ying, Z., & Liu, C. (2014). Positive temperature coefficient thermistors based on carbon nanotube/polymer composites. Scientific reports, 4, 6684.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodman, A. H. (2012). Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Clack, J. A., Fay, R. R., & Popper, A. N. (Eds.). (2016). Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear: Evidence from the Fossil Record (Vol. 59). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Amato, G., Falchi, F., Rabitti, F., & Vadicamo, L. (2014). Some Theoretical and Experimental Observations on Permutation Spaces and Similarity Search. In A. J. M. Traina, C. Traina, & R. L. F. Cordeiro (Eds.), Similarity Search and Applications: 7th International Conference, SISAP 2014, Los Cabos, Mexico, October 29-31, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 37–49). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, January 21). Why Is The Norovirus Such A Huge Problem For The NHS? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Student Loans: Default Rates Need To Be Computed More Appropriately (No. HEHS-99-135). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery, M. L. (2010). Predictors of White adoptive parents’ cultural and racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Rojas, R., & Mueller, B. (2015, September 16). Defiant Pledge Fought Back in Fatal Hazing, Report Says. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2009; Marcus and Grollman 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marcus and Grollman 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zeng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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