How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alesina, A. (2013). Economics. Women, fertility, and the rise of modern capitalism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Courseaux, A., & Nahon, J. L. (2001). Birth of two chimeric genes in the Hominidae lineage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5507), 1293–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hartl, T. A., Smith, H. F., & Bosco, G. (2008). Chromosome alignment and transvection are antagonized by condensin II. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5906), 1384–1387.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lenski, R. E., Ofria, C., Pennock, R. T., & Adami, C. (2003). The evolutionary origin of complex features. Nature, 423(6936), 139–144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez, A. (2013). Mobile Networks Architecture. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Desai, B., & Allen, B. (Eds.). (2016). Nailing the Written Emergency Medicine Board Examination. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Paleolog, E., & Akhavani, M. A. (2008). The lymphocyte in inflammatory angiogenesis. In M. P. Seed & D. A. Walsh (Eds.), Angiogenesis in Inflammation: Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates (pp. 45–57). Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 26). Purring Male Spiders Seduce Females With Their Love Song. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Routine Disclosure of Broadcaster Financial Records (No. 111721). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Novak, T. S. (2017). Vital Signs of U.S. Osteopathic Medical Residency Programs Pivoting to Single Accreditation Standards (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. (2016, October 7). Boogaard’s Pill Dealer Receives Probation. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alesina 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Alesina 2013; Courseaux and Nahon 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Courseaux and Nahon 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lenski et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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