How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schooler, J. W. (2014). Metascience could rescue the “replication crisis.” Nature, 515(7525), 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nath, D., & Shadan, S. (2009). The ubiquitin system. Nature, 458(7237), 421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takano, A., Endo, T., & Yoshihisa, T. (2005). tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 140–142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, C., Dong, S., Santosh, M., & Chen, X. (2013). Seismic Evidence for a Geosuture between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks, South China. Scientific reports, 3, 2200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, W. (2004). Risk Assessment of Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rassias, T. M. (Ed.). (2014). Handbook of Functional Equations: Functional Inequalities (Vol. 95). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Renso, C., Puntoni, S., Frentzos, E., Mazzoni, A., Moelans, B., Pelekis, N., & Pini, F. (2008). Wireless Network Data Sources: Tracking and Synthesizing Trajectories. In F. Giannotti & D. Pedreschi (Eds.), Mobility, Data Mining and Privacy: Geographic Knowledge Discovery (pp. 73–100). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 12). What Happens When Molten Aluminum Is Poured Into A Lava Lamp? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Broadcast Exclusivity Rules: Effects of Elimination Would Depend on Other Federal Actions and Industry Response (No. GAO-15-441). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, G. (2017). A Mixed Methods Study Examining Teacher Impressions of a Psychoeducational Program on Common Issues During Childhood (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017, January 6). Highways and Byways of an Austrian Maestro. New York Times, p. AR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schooler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nath and Shadan 2009; Schooler 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nath and Shadan 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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