How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2007). A merger too far? Nature, 446(7131), 15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoekstra, A. Y., & Wiedmann, T. O. (2014). Humanity’s unsustainable environmental footprint. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1114–1117.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laepple, T., Werner, M., & Lohmann, G. (2011). Synchronicity of Antarctic temperatures and local solar insolation on orbital timescales. Nature, 471(7336), 91–94.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, E. S., Zhang, K., Nicolas, E., Cam, H. P., Zofall, M., & Grewal, S. I. S. (2008). Cell cycle control of centromeric repeat transcription and heterochromatin assembly. Nature, 451(7179), 734–737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moritz, F. G. (2013). Electromechanical Motion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Thomas Byrd, J. W. (Ed.). (2005). Operative Hip Arthroscopy (Second Edition.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Feller, D., Peterson, K. A., & Ruscic, B. (2015). Improved accuracy benchmarks of small molecules using correlation consistent basis sets. In A. K. Wilson, K. A. Peterson, & D. E. Woon (Eds.), Thom H. Dunning, Jr: A Festschrift from Theoretical Chemistry Accounts (pp. 31–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 2). Insects Are Helping Us Develop The Future Of Hearing Aids. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Education Authority To Charge Student Financial Aid Application Fees (No. B-206573). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Willis, T. Y. (2012). Rare but there: An intersectional exploration of the experiences and outcomes of Black women who studied abroad through community college programs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, January 20). Inauguration Watch: Mr. Reality TV Goes to Washington. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hoekstra and Wiedmann 2014; Wadman 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoekstra and Wiedmann 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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