How to format your references using the Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forde, A. (2005). The class of 2005. Norway: a neuroscientist making connections. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 793–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Meng, H., & Bao, Z. (2001). Self-assembled monolayer organic field-effect transistors. Nature, 413(6857), 713–716.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, J. V., Kang, S. S., Dustin, M. L., & McGavern, D. B. (2009). Myelomonocytic cell recruitment causes fatal CNS vascular injury during acute viral meningitis. Nature, 457(7226), 191–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, P. (2011). Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yager, R. R., & Liu, L. (Eds.). (2008). Classic Works of the Dempster-Shafer Theory of Belief Functions (Vol. 219). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vasanthaiah, H. K. N., Thangadurai, D., Basha, S. M., Biradar, D. P., Kambiranda, D., & Louime, C. (2011). Muscadiniana. In C. Kole (Ed.), Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Temperate Fruits (pp. 65–77). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 12). Show Us Your Smarts: A Very Brief History Of Intelligence Testing. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Aviation Safety: Enhanced Requirements Can Improve Commuter Pilot Training (No. RCED-88-218). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi, Y.-J. (2003). Function of Commissureless and Related Genes in Drosophila Neural Development (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F. (2016, October 14). Choosing a Place to Settle Down in the Age of Fitbit. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forde 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Forde 2005; Nowak and Sigmund 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nowak and Sigmund 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemography
ISSN (print)0070-3370
ISSN (online)1533-7790

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