How to format your references using the Water-Energy Nexus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water-Energy Nexus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harvey, C.F., 2002. Groundwater flow in the Ganges Delta. Science 296, 1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkman, P.A., Young, O.R., 2009. Science and government. Governance and environmental change in the Arctic Ocean. Science 324, 339–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doebeli, M., Hauert, C., Killingback, T., 2004. The evolutionary origin of cooperators and defectors. Science 306, 859–862.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krimigis, S.M., Sergis, N., Mitchell, D.G., Hamilton, D.C., Krupp, N., 2007. A dynamic, rotating ring current around Saturn. Nature 450, 1050–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andresen, R., Oades, L.G., Caputi, P., 2011. Psychological Recovery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chaires, J.B., Graves, D. (Eds.), 2013. Quadruplex Nucleic Acids, Topics in Current Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Callinicos, A., 2016. Marxism: and the Very Idea of Critical Political Economy, in: Cafruny, A., Talani, L.S., Pozo Martin, G. (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Critical International Political Economy. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water-Energy Nexus.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Happy News! Masturbation Actually Has Health Benefits [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Review of Pension and Fringe Benefits for Contractors’ Employees at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (No. HRD-81-142). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, C.A., 2014. A cultural confluence: Approaches to embedding cultural insights and inclusion throughout the marketing process (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J.F., 2017. Death Is Inevitable. Financial Turmoil Afterward Isn’t. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harvey, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Berkman and Young, 2009; Harvey, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkman and Young, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Krimigis et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater-Energy Nexus
ISSN (print)2588-9125

Other styles