How to format your references using the Water-Energy Nexus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water-Energy Nexus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2003. Home truths. Nature 423, 900–901.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellington, A.D., Bull, J.J., 2005. Evolution. Changing the cofactor diet of an enzyme. Science 310, 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiting, M.F., Bradler, S., Maxwell, T., 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421, 264–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bayer, M., Hawrylak, P., Hinzer, K., Fafard, S., Korkusinski, M., Wasilewski, Z.R., Stern, O., Forchel, A., 2001. Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules. Science 291, 451–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzik, A., 2013. Essentials for Occupational Health Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Büchi, F.N., Inaba, M., Schmidt, T.J. (Eds.), 2009. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsang, S.K.M., Hui, E.K., 2015. Preventing and Combating School Bullying: A Conceptual Review, in: Lee, T.Y., Shek, D.T.L., Sun, R.C.F. (Eds.), Student Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Theory, Intervention and Research, Quality of Life in Asia. Springer, Singapore, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water-Energy Nexus.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. How Parasites And Bacteria Could Be Changing The Way You Think And Feel [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Aviation Safety: FAA Efforts Have Improved Safety, but Challenges Remain in Key Areas (No. GAO-13-442T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, D., 2015. Resistance, reluctance, and revelation: Examining faculty perceptions of online learning options at a Faith-Based university (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Encouraging Signs for the Ailing Mets. New York Times SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ellington and Bull, 2005; Schiermeier, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellington and Bull, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bayer et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater-Energy Nexus
ISSN (print)2588-9125

Other styles