How to format your references using the Water-Energy Nexus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water-Energy Nexus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A., 2006. 2007 U.S. budget. NASA budget soars as shuttle lands. Science 313, 280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yanovsky, M.J., Kay, S.A., 2002. Molecular basis of seasonal time measurement in Arabidopsis. Nature 419, 308–312.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs, K.-U., Hmelo, L.R., Sylva, S.P., 2003. Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science 299, 1214–1217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, J.-J., Lv, A.-F., Wang, Y.-Q., Cui, B., Yan, H.-J., Hu, J.-S., Hu, W.-P., Guo, Y.-G., Wan, L.-J., 2013. Integrated prototype nanodevices via SnO₂ nanoparticles decorated SnSe nanosheets. Sci. Rep. 3, 2613.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J., Gaare, M., Holguín, J., Bailey, N., Pratley, T., 2016. Professional Clojure. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Bhushan, B. (Ed.), 2007. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, 2nd revised and extended edition. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kardel, T., Maquet, P., 2013. 2 Years of Discovery in Holland 1660-1664, in: Kardel, T., Maquet, P. (Eds.), Nicolaus Steno: Biography and Original Papers of a 17th Century Scientist. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water-Energy Nexus.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. World’s First Fluorescent Frog Discovered In The Amazon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Europe (No. NSIAD-91-194). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holloway, C.M., 2015. Evaluating five leadership traits in the rising stars succession planning program (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., 2017. For the Aged, Self-Driving Cars Could Bridge a Mobility Gap. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2006; Yanovsky and Kay, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yanovsky and Kay, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater-Energy Nexus
ISSN (print)2588-9125

Other styles