How to format your references using the Water-Energy Nexus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water-Energy Nexus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kabat, P., 2012. Systems science for policy evaluation. Science 336, 1398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ischenko, A.A., Saparbaev, M.K., 2002. Alternative nucleotide incision repair pathway for oxidative DNA damage. Nature 415, 183–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic, J., Burgess, N., O’Keefe, J., 2012. Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science 337, 853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nagai, S., Dubrana, K., Tsai-Pflugfelder, M., Davidson, M.B., Roberts, T.M., Brown, G.W., Varela, E., Hediger, F., Gasser, S.M., Krogan, N.J., 2008. Functional targeting of DNA damage to a nuclear pore-associated SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase. Science 322, 597–602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G., 2005. Virtual Private Networking. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ingram, J.C., DeClerck, F., Rumbaitis del Rio, C. (Eds.), 2012. Integrating Ecology and Poverty Reduction: The Application of Ecology in Development Solutions. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Caprio, U., Abram, M.R., 2016. Towards the Study of New Nuclear Energies, in: Minati, G., Abram, M.R., Pessa, E. (Eds.), Towards a Post-Bertalanffy Systemics, Contemporary Systems Thinking. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water-Energy Nexus.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Ancient Hot Spring On Mars May Contain Signs Of Past Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-98-18(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Templeton, T.H., 2017. The Impact of Emergent Information and Communication Technology on Peacebuilding (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. ‘Jersey’ Seems to Be the Word. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kabat, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ischenko and Saparbaev, 2002; Kabat, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ischenko and Saparbaev, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagai et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater-Energy Nexus
ISSN (print)2588-9125

Other styles