How to format your references using the Water-Energy Nexus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water-Energy Nexus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, A., 2004. Learning from the Altmeister. Nature 428, 897.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilbert, D.T., Wilson, T.D., 2007. Prospection: experiencing the future. Science 317, 1351–1354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gebauer, D., Völkel, A., Cölfen, H., 2008. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters. Science 322, 1819–1822.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shiddiky, M.J.A., Vaidyanathan, R., Rauf, S., Tay, Z., Trau, M., 2014. Molecular nanoshearing: an innovative approach to shear off molecules with AC-induced nanoscopic fluid flow. Sci. Rep. 4, 3716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P., 2013. Loop-shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Vacareanu, R., Ionescu, C. (Eds.), 2016. The 1940 Vrancea Earthquake. Issues, Insights and Lessons Learnt: Proceedings of the Symposium Commemorating 75 Years from November 10, 1940 Vrancea Earthquake, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Springer Natural Hazards. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Trombini, G., 2014. Analysis of In-licensing Decisions at a Project and Firm-Level: Evidence from the Biopharmaceutical Industry, in: Bonesso, S., Comacchio, A., Pizzi, C. (Eds.), Project-Based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation. Springer, London, pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water-Energy Nexus.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Current Emissions Could Already Warm World To Dangerous Levels: Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Information Technology: Census Bureau Testing of 2010 Decennial Systems Can Be Strengthened (No. GAO-09-414T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prochorchik, V.L., 2010. Increasing infant mental health awareness (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Looking to Bulk Up Sprint, SoftBank Is Casting an Eye on Charter. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbert and Wilson, 2007; Meyer, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gilbert and Wilson, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Shiddiky et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater-Energy Nexus
ISSN (print)2588-9125

Other styles