How to format your references using the Computers and Mathematics with Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Mathematics with Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, World view: Out of service, Nature. 462 (2009) 846.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Prokopenko, J.T. Lizier, Transfer entropy and transient limits of computation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5394.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.-I. Wu, S. Shi, Y.-P. Zhang, A case for conservation, Nature. 428 (2004) 213–214.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.V. Mora, M. Davison, J.M. Wild, M.M. Walker, Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon, Nature. 432 (2004) 508–511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.N. Shore, The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
R. Pollack, J. Pach, J.E. Goodman, eds., Twentieth Anniversary Volume: Discrete & Computational Geometry, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Affuso, The Role of Fixed Assets in Reducing Asymmetric Information, in: G. Calcagnini, E. Saltari (Eds.), The Economics of Imperfect Markets: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 91–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Mathematics with Applications.

Blog post
K. Evans, US Navy Sonar Found To Breach Whale Protection Laws, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bilingual Education: A Necessity That Has Not Been Satisfied, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.A. Newfang, A Historical Assessment of Asbestos Exposure, Abatement Methods and Containment Efficacy During Asbestos Containing Material Removal Activities at a Large Federal Facility, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Loomis, Phantasmagoric Glimpses of Beauty Amid All of the Messiness, New York Times. (2012) 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Mathematics with Applications
AbbreviationComput. Math. Appl.
ISSN (print)0898-1221
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

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