How to format your references using the Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verma, I.M., 2013. Medicine. Gene therapy that works. Science 341, 853–855.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chitwood, D.H., Timmermans, M.C.P., 2010. Small RNAs are on the move. Nature 467, 415–419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peirce, V., Carobbio, S., Vidal-Puig, A., 2014. The different shades of fat. Nature 510, 76–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dandonneau, Y., Vega, A., Loisel, H., du Penhoat, Y., Menkes, C., 2003. Oceanic Rossby waves acting as a “hay rake” for ecosystem floating by-products. Science 302, 1548–1551.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, A.K., 2014. Fruit and Vegetables. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Düh, J., Hufnagl, H., Juritsch, E., Pfliegl, R., Schimany, H.-K., Schönegger, H. (Eds.), 2010. Data and Mobility: Transforming Information into Intelligent Traffic and Transportation Services Proceedings of the Lakeside Conference 2010, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Blake, D., Lehmann, B.N., Timmermann, A., 2016. Performance Clustering and Incentives in the UK Pension Fund Industry, in: Satchell, S. (Ed.), Asset Management: Portfolio Construction, Performance and Returns. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. 20 Million-Year-Old Flea Could Contain Ancient Ancestor Of Bubonic Plague [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Construction of Space Shuttle Facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base (No. B-183134). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mardakhanian, A., 2015. Blended CME, Inc. A business plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. A Sequel Rings Familiar, But Keeps the Fun Intact. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Verma, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Chitwood and Timmermans, 2010; Verma, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chitwood and Timmermans, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Dandonneau et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science
ISSN (print)1110-4929

Other styles