How to format your references using the Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiechert, U.H., 2002. Geology. Earth’s early atmosphere. Science 298, 2341–2342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dell’Anno, A., Danovaro, R., 2005. Extracellular DNA plays a key role in deep-sea ecosystem functioning. Science 309, 2179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lieberman, E., Hauert, C., Nowak, M.A., 2005. Evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Nature 433, 312–316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prasad, V., Strömberg, C.A.E., Alimohammadian, H., Sahni, A., 2005. Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science 310, 1177–1180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Technical Planning for on-site Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kutrib, M., Moreira, N., Reis, R. (Eds.), 2012. Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems: 14th International Workshop, DCFS 2012, Braga, Portugal, July 23-25, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Halvorsen, O.H., Clarke, D., 2011. Interacting with Drivers from Applications, in: Clarke, D. (Ed.), OS X and IOS Kernel Programming. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 69–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Science Debunks Fad Autism Theories, But That Doesn’t Dissuade Believers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices (No. GAO-17-281). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz, E., 2014. School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum, W.K., Craig, S., Kaplan, T., 2015. Inquiry Is Said to Aim at Chief of State Senate. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wiechert, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dell’Anno and Danovaro, 2005; Wiechert, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dell’Anno and Danovaro, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Prasad et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science
ISSN (print)1110-4929

Other styles