How to format your references using the Journal of Field Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Field Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howat, I. 2010. Journal club. A glaciologist ponders iceberg calving from a safe distance. Nature 466: 799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walmsley, I.A. and M.G. Raymer. 2005. Applied physics. Toward quantum-information processing with photons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1733–1734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morens, D.M., G.K. Folkers and A.S. Fauci. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430: 242–249.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lynch, J.A., A.E. Brent, D.S. Leaf, M.A. Pultz and C. Desplan. 2006. Localized maternal orthodenticle patterns anterior and posterior in the long germ wasp Nasonia. Nature 439: 728–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory, J. 2012. Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kröger, F. 2008. Temporal Logic and State Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chandra, R., A. Gupta, Y.-S. Ong and C.-K. Goh. 2016. Evolutionary Multi-task Learning for Modular Training of Feedforward Neural Networks. In Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (A. Hirose, S. Ozawa, K. Doya, K. Ikeda, M. Lee & D. Liu, eds.), pp. 37–46. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Field Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. [online]. 2016. Microbes And The Mantle Helped Earth’s Early Atmosphere Get Its Oxygen. IFLScience. IFLScience. <; (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angervil, G. 2017. Administrative Discretion in Public Policy Implementation: The Case of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Russia Lifts Arrest For Ex-Premier. New York Times: A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howat 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Walmsley and Raymer 2005; Howat 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walmsley and Raymer 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lynch et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Field Ornithology
AbbreviationJ. Field Ornithol.
ISSN (print)0273-8570
ISSN (online)1557-9263
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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