How to format your references using the Journal of Field Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Field Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goonatilake, S. 2000. Many paths to enlightenment. Nature 405: 399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Read, S.M. and T. Bacic. 2002. Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas, J.S., B. Zavala and C.E. Landisman. 2011. Activity-dependent long-term depression of electrical synapses. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334: 389–393.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mathews, D.J.H., P. Donovan, J. Harris, R. Lovell-Badge, J. Savulescu and R. Faden. 2006. Science and law. Integrity in international stem cell research collaborations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 921–922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. 2002. Centrifugal Pumps (Newtonian Liquids). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vijayakumar, V. and V. Neelanarayanan (eds). 2016. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC – 16’)1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Theodori, G.L. and G.T. Kyle. 2013. Community, Place, and Conservation. In Place-Based Conservation: Perspectives from the Social Sciences (W.P. Stewart, D.R. Williams & L.E. Kruger, eds.), pp. 59–70. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Field Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. [online]. 2015. After Pluto There’s Still Plenty Of The Solar System Left To Explore. IFLScience. IFLScience. <> (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Coordination of Computerized Information Systems Reporting on Active Research Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, J.E. 2010. Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992. Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest. New York Times: A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goonatilake 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Goonatilake 2000; Read and Bacic 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Read and Bacic 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mathews et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Field Ornithology
AbbreviationJ. Field Ornithol.
ISSN (print)0273-8570
ISSN (online)1557-9263
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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