How to format your references using the Journal of Field Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Field Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sterner, T. 2015. Economics: Higher costs of climate change. Nature 527: 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peers, G. and N.M. Price. 2006. Copper-containing plastocyanin used for electron transport by an oceanic diatom. Nature 441: 341–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holman, K.T., A.M. Pivovar and M.D. Ward. 2001. Engineering crystal symmetry and polar order in molecular host frameworks. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 1907–1911.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakajima, K., G. Sena, T. Nawy and P.N. Benfey. 2001. Intercellular movement of the putative transcription factor SHR in root patterning. Nature 413: 307–311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner, J. 2005. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kourtis, A.P. and M. Bulterys (eds). 2012. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Breastfeeding: Science, Research Advances, and Policy. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Deswarte, Y. and S. Gambs. 2010. Towards a Privacy-Preserving National Identity Card. In Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneous Security: 4th International Workshop, DPM 2009 and Second International Workshop, SETOP 2009, St. Malo, France, September 24-25, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (J. Garcia-Alfaro, G. Navarro-Arribas, N. Cuppens-Boulahia & Y. Roudier, eds.), pp. 48–64. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Field Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015. Awesome Science Parody Of Taylor Swift Song. IFLScience. IFLScience. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Summary of the Status of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Grants and Loans Made Under the Health Maintenance Organization Act as of June 30, 1977. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughan, L. 2008. Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. and D.E. Sanger. 2016. 3 Nations Meet for Syria Talks, Excluding U.S. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sterner 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Peers and Price 2006; Sterner 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peers and Price 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakajima et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Field Ornithology
AbbreviationJ. Field Ornithol.
ISSN (print)0273-8570
ISSN (online)1557-9263
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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