How to format your references using the Energy Storage Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Storage Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Nedergaard, Neuroscience. Garbage truck of the brain, Science. 340 (2013) 1529–1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Keeling, C.A. Gilligan, Metapopulation dynamics of bubonic plague, Nature. 407 (2000) 903–906.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Yang, J.I. Goldstein, E.R.D. Scott, Iron meteorite evidence for early formation and catastrophic disruption of protoplanets, Nature. 446 (2007) 888–891.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Enninga, D.E. Levy, G. Blobel, B.M.A. Fontoura, Role of nucleoporin induction in releasing an mRNA nuclear export block, Science. 295 (2002) 1523–1525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Z.-G. Wang, Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
B.L. Gewertz, The Best Medicine: A Physician’s Guide to Effective Leadership, Springer, New York, NY, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D.T. Ginat, L. Farrokh-Siar, F. Yanoga, L. Pasquale, Ophthalmic Imaging and Neuroimaging of the Effects of Glaucoma Treatment, in: D.T. Ginat, S.K. Freitag (Eds.), Post-Treatment Imaging of the Orbit, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Storage Materials.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, NASA Is Not Changing The Signs Of The Zodiac (But Your Horoscope Is Still Meaningless), IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Medical ADP Systems: Automated Medical Records Hold Promise to Improve Patient Care, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Green, Bullying of Individuals with Disabilities on a College Campus: A Qualitative Study, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, The Sideline as Studio, New York Times. (2016) C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Storage Materials
AbbreviationEnergy Storage Mater.
ISSN (print)2405-8297

Other styles