How to format your references using the Computer Science - Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science - Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Layard R (2010) Economics. Measuring subjective well-being. Science 327:534–535
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Minetti AE, Ardigó LP (2002) Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump. Nature 420:141–142
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lutz W, Sanderson W, Scherbov S (2001) The end of world population growth. Nature 412:543–545
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Gasser S, Orsulic S, Brown EJ, Raulet DH (2005) The DNA damage pathway regulates innate immune system ligands of the NKG2D receptor. Nature 436:1186–1190

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dayton G (2014) Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Bonakdarpour B, Petit F (2016) Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 18th International Symposium, SSS 2016, Lyon, France, November 7-10, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Battle-Baptiste W (2010) Sweepin’ Spirits: Power and Transformation on the Plantation Landscape. In: Baugher S, Spencer-Wood SM (eds) Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes. Springer, New York, NY, pp 81–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science - Research and Development.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2016) Ancient Alaskan Dolphin May Hold Clues To Evolution Of Bizarre South Asian River Dolphin. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-alaskan-dolphin-may-hold-clues-to-evolution-of-bizarre-south-asian-river-dolphin/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1994) High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Schiffbauer LW (2013) The pursuit of self-esteem: A help or a hindrance in thriving in the workplace? Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K (2001) Preserving the Work of the Artful Tagger. New York Times 143

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science - Research and Development
AbbreviationComput. Sci. (Berl)
ISSN (print)1865-2034
ISSN (online)1865-2042
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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