How to format your references using the Computer Science - Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science - Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman S (2004) Getting mobile in Europe. Nature 427:868–869
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirn A, Laigle M (2004) Geophysics. Silent heralds of megathrust earthquakes? Science 305:1917–1918
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillenbrand R, Taubner T, Keilmann F (2002) Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale. Nature 418:159–162
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hirschberg JH, Brunsveld L, Ramzi A, et al (2000) Helical self-assembled polymers from cooperative stacking of hydrogen-bonded pairs. Nature 407:167–170

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens BA, Roediger E (2016) Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
André FJ (2010) Designing Public Policies: An Approach Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Computable General Equilibrium Modeling. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hupkens I, Deutz A, Yang K, Emmerich M (2015) Faster Exact Algorithms for Computing Expected Hypervolume Improvement. In: Gaspar-Cunha A, Henggeler Antunes C, Coello CC (eds) Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science - Research and Development.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Bird Droppings Help Keep The Arctic Cool. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Army Logistics: Better Approach Needed to Identify Systemic Causes of Problem Parts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad AB (2010) Analyzing comparative sequence data to understand genome function and evolution. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gustines GG (2010) Hey, Archie! Want to Build An Empire? New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science - Research and Development
AbbreviationComput. Sci. (Berl)
ISSN (print)1865-2034
ISSN (online)1865-2042
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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