How to format your references using the Computer Science - Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science - Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pockley P (2001) Climate change transforms island ecosystem. Nature 410:616
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Frisch RL, Rosenberg SM (2011) Microbiology. Antibiotic resistance, not shaken or stirred. Science 333:1713–1714
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Behie SW, Zelisko PM, Bidochka MJ (2012) Endophytic insect-parasitic fungi translocate nitrogen directly from insects to plants. Science 336:1576–1577
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Choi HJ, Roundy D, Sun H, et al (2002) The origin of the anomalous superconducting properties of MgB(2). Nature 418:758–760

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lieberman JA, Tasman A (2006) Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Heise H, Matthews S (2013) Modern NMR Methodology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Mitchell B (2005) Participatory Partnerships: Engaging and Empowering to Enhance Environmental Management and Quality of Life? In: Shek DTL, Chan YK, Lee PSN (eds) Quality-of-Life Research in Chinese, Western and Global Contexts. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 123–144

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science - Research and Development.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S (2017) Handmade Centrifuge Can Fraction Blood And Detect Malaria. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/handmade-centrifuge-can-fraction-blood-and-detect-malaria/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2005) Telecommunications: Strong Support for Extending FCC’s Auction Authority Exists, but Little Agreement on Other Options to Improve Efficient Use of Spectrum. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Thompson T (2010) Assessing the determinants of information technology adoption in Jamaica’s public sector using the technology acceptance model. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Times TNY (2016) What Else Is on the Ballot in the U.S.? Minimum Wage, Death Penalty and Guns. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science - Research and Development
AbbreviationComput. Sci. (Berl)
ISSN (print)1865-2034
ISSN (online)1865-2042
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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