How to format your references using the Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klein J (2000) Smart polymer solutions. Nature 405:745, 747
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouibes A, Zaoui A (2014) High-pressure polymorphs of ZnCO₃: evolutionary crystal structure prediction. Sci Rep 4:5172
A journal article with 3 authors
Lü L, Zhang Z-K, Zhou T (2013) Deviation of Zipf’s and Heaps’ Laws in human languages with limited dictionary sizes. Sci Rep 3:1082
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen W-H, Xu X-D, Luo G-F, et al (2013) Dual-targeting pro-apoptotic peptide for programmed cancer cell death via specific mitochondria damage. Sci Rep 3:3468

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasternak JJ (2005) An Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ladikas M, Chaturvedi S, Zhao Y, Stemerding D (2015) Science and Technology Governance and Ethics: A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Stack M, Gartland M, Keane T (2016) Path Dependency, Behavioral Lock-in and the International Market for Beer. In: Cabras I, Higgins D, Preece D (eds) Brewing, Beer and Pubs: A Global Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 54–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Study Reveals How The Brains Of Criminal Psychopaths Are Wired. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Electronic Government: Opportunities and Challenges Facing the FirstGov Web Gateway. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milliken DE (2012) Blood pressure measurement in the primary care provider setting: A project evaluating the blood pressure technique of nursing staff. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Sooners’ Student Spirit Club Tries to Be Neither Too Raucous Nor Too Tame. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationClin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)0770-3198
ISSN (online)1434-9949
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles