# How to format your references using the Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Leonhardt U (2013) Applied physics: cloaking of heat. Nature 498:440–441
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Stephens DJ, Allan VJ (2003) Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging. Science 300:82–86
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Didham RK, Ewers RM, Gemmell NJ (2005) Comment on “Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands.” Science 307:1412; author reply 1412
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Larson BC, Yang W, Ice GE, et al (2002) Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution. Nature 415:887–890

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Tobias J, Hochhauser D (2014) Cancer and its Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Ruppert D (2015) Statistics and Data Analysis for Financial Engineering: with R examples, 2nd ed. 2015. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Buzzard K (2014) Computing Weight One Modular Forms over $\mathbb{C} and \overline{\mathbb{F}}_{p}$. In: Böckle G, Wiese G (eds) Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 129–146

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D (2016) Surprising Ways That Caffeine Affects Your Body And Brain. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/surprising-ways-that-caffeine-affects-your-body-and-brain/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1991) Student Aid Information and Private Tuition-Guarantee Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gogri D (2017) Effect of Water Hardness on Adsorption of Lead From Aqueous Solutions Using Douglas Fir Biochar. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J (2016) Just What the Candidate Ordered. New York Times A16

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].