How to format your references using the Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heaven MC (2013) Chemistry. Turn the molecule this way for a faster reaction. Science 342:46–47
A journal article with 2 authors
Martinez LM, Angell CA (2001) A thermodynamic connection to the fragility of glass-forming liquids. Nature 410:663–667
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun S, Ting C-T, Wu C-I (2004) The normal function of a speciation gene, Odysseus, and its hybrid sterility effect. Science 305:81–83
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yu Y, Jiang S, Zhou W, et al (2013) Room temperature rubbing for few-layer two-dimensional thin flakes directly on flexible polymer substrates. Sci Rep 3:2697

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimble MJ (2006) Robust Industrial Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England
An edited book
Stratton RD, Hauswirth WW, Gardner TW (2012) Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Sato K, Dederichs PH, Katayama-Yoshida H (2005) Exchange Interactions and Curie Temperatures in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors. In: Somayajulu DRS, Lieb K-P (eds) IWNMS 2004: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Nanomaterials, Magnetic Ions and Magnetic Semiconductors Studied Mostly by Hyperfine Interactions (IWNMS 2004) held in Baroda, India, 10–14 February 2004. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Anxiety Makes It Harder To Read People’s Emotions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks ED (2010) Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2013) Seafood With a Scenic Distraction. New York Times LI8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationClin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)0770-3198
ISSN (online)1434-9949
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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