How to format your references using the Cancer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Visions of Europe’s future, Nature. 421 (2003) 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.J. Peale, M.H. Lee, A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean satellites, Science. 298 (2002) 593–597.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.M. Khanna, J.T. McNamara, L. Lefrançois, In situ imaging of the endogenous CD8 T cell response to infection, Science. 318 (2007) 116–120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, H.-S. Wang, K. Wang, F.-B. Wang, X.-H. Xia, Ice crystals growth driving assembly of porous nitrogen-doped graphene for catalyzing oxygen reduction probed by in situ fluorescence electrochemistry, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.H. Duckert, Practical Enterprise Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
B. Deml, P. Stock, R. Bruder, C.M. Schlick, eds., Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2015, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Kunihiro, On Optimal Bounds of Small Inverse Problems and Approximate GCD Problems with Higher Degree, in: D. Gollmann, F.C. Freiling (Eds.), Information Security: 15th International Conference, ISC 2012, Passau, Germany, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, Why Teenaged Boys Are Prone to Risky Behavior, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Surface Transportation: Many Factors Affect Investment Decisions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Chavez, Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.N. Wilford, Intertwined Circles of Faith, New York Times. (2016) D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Letters
AbbreviationCancer Lett.
ISSN (print)0304-3835
ScopeCancer Research

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