How to format your references using the Cancer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Fusi, Neuroscience. A quiescent working memory, Science. 319 (2008) 1495–1496.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Gerst, M.K. Savage, Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool, Science. 306 (2004) 1543–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.L. Ooi, D.D. Shoemaker, J.D. Boeke, A DNA microarray-based genetic screen for nonhomologous end-joining mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Science. 294 (2001) 2552–2556.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.A. Lakhani, A. Masud, K. Kuida, G.A. Porter Jr, C.J. Booth, W.Z. Mehal, I. Inayat, R.A. Flavell, Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis, Science. 311 (2006) 847–851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.L. Freeman, Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2002.
An edited book
C. Franco-Paredes, J.I. Santos-Preciado, eds., Neglected Tropical Diseases - Latin America and the Caribbean, Springer, Vienna, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Albini, S. Protti, The Solvent Issue, in: S. Protti (Ed.), Paradigms in Green Chemistry and Technology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 77–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, GM Mosquitoes Set To Be Released In Brazil To Combat Dengue, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, President’s Eighth Special Message for Fiscal Year 1981, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.J. Johnson, Queered, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, And Something for Your Dog as Well?, New York Times. (1997) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Letters
AbbreviationCancer Lett.
ISSN (print)0304-3835
ScopeCancer Research

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