How to format your references using the Cancer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.-U. Blaser, Chemistry. A golden boost to an old reaction, Science. 313 (2006) 312–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Rape, M.W. Kirschner, Autonomous regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex couples mitosis to S-phase entry, Nature. 432 (2004) 588–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Hanotte, T. Dessie, S. Kemp, Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes, Science. 328 (2010) 1640–1641.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.A. Lanin, I.V. Fedotov, A.B. Fedotov, D.A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A.M. Zheltikov, The phase-controlled Raman effect, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Exposito, Advanced Transport Protocols, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012.
An edited book
R. Bru, S. Romero-Vivó, eds., Positive Systems: Proceedings of the third Multidisciplinary International Symposium on Positive Systems: Theory and Applications (POSTA 2009) Valencia, Spain, September 2-4, 2009, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Bhidayasiri, D. Tarsy, Parkinson’s Disease: Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia, in: D. Tarsy (Ed.), Movement Disorders: A Video Atlas: A Video Atlas, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2012: pp. 10–11.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Letters.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Russia Announces Plans To Send Humans Back To The Moon, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, BPA Management of ADP Systems Development Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.C. Pestano, The Utilization of a Web-Based Internet Application to Improve Access and Efficiency of In-Home Care Services Provided by Personal Care Aides, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Puerto Rico Aims to Appease Congress With a New Proposal on Its Debt, New York Times. (2016) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Letters
AbbreviationCancer Lett.
ISSN (print)0304-3835
ScopeCancer Research

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