How to format your references using the Computer Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Engelhardt, Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation, Science. 334 (2011) 1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Shen, L.C. Ho, The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation, Nature. 513 (2014) 210–213.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Cui, M. Zhang, G. Zou, Resonant tunneling modulation in quasi-2D Cu(2)O/SnO(2) p-n horizontal-multi-layer heterostructure for room temperature H(2)S sensor application, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1250.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.P. Long, E.A. Ainsworth, A.D.B. Leakey, J. Nösberger, D.R. Ort, Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations, Science. 312 (2006) 1918–1921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.C. Jepsen, Distributed Storage Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England, 2003.
An edited book
R. Chen, ed., Intelligent Computing and Information Science: International Conference, ICICIS 2011, Chongqing, China, January 8-9, 2011. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Čomić, L. De Floriani, P. Magillo, F. Iuricich, A Combinatorial Approach Based on Forman Theory, in: L. De Floriani, P. Magillo, F. Iuricich (Eds.), Morphological Modeling of Terrains and Volume Data, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Networks.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Ancient Asteroid Impacts Yield Evidence For The Nature Of The Early Earth, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Questions Designed To Aid Managers and Auditors in Assessing the ADP Planning Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Dickson, Yielding architecture: A manifesto for [urban + agri]culture, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Running the World With Eyes Wide Open, New York Times. (2012) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Networks
ISSN (print)1389-1286
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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