How to format your references using the Vacuum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vacuum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.O. Ernst, Behavior. Decisions made better, Science. 329 (2010) 1022–1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Liemert, A. Kienle, Exact and efficient solution of the radiative transport equation for the semi-infinite medium, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2018.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.G. Johnson, J.B.C. Jackson, A.F. Budd, Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years, Science. 319 (2008) 1521–1523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.K. Yoo, F. Duewer, H. Yang, D. Yi, J.W. Li, X.D. Xiang, Room-temperature electronic phase transitions in the continuous phase diagrams of perovskite manganites, Nature. 406 (2000) 704–708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Reay, Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the OMAP-L138 eXperimenter, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
B. Sheppard, School District Leadership Matters, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Liu, A. Lu, X. Zhu, N. Zhang, G. Cheng, N. Wang, F. Liu, K. Guo, H. Wang, Effect of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome on the Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in Rats, in: Y. Wu (Ed.), Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 33–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vacuum.

Blog post
T. Hale, Watch What Happens If You Put A Diamond In A Hydraulic Press, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, VBA Information Technology Investment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Bernal, Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. George, ... And Sewage, Too, New York Times. (2010) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVacuum
ISSN (print)0042-207X
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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