How to format your references using the Vacuum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vacuum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Sieradzki, Materials science. Potential solutions for creating responsive materials, Science. 332 (2011) 1158–1159.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Ruxin, A. Habinshuti, Crowd control in Rwanda, Nature. 474 (2011) 572–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.M. Green, K.J. Finn, J.J. Li, Loss of DNA replication control is a potent inducer of gene amplification, Science. 329 (2010) 943–946.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Brinster, G. Lamberet, B. Staels, P. Trieu-Cuot, A. Gruss, C. Poyart, Type II fatty acid synthesis is not a suitable antibiotic target for Gram-positive pathogens, Nature. 458 (2009) 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.S. Dacey, M.D. Mack, L.B. Fiore, Your Anxious Child, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Z. Liu, ed., Essentials of Chinese Medicine, Springer, London, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Urban, S. Berghofer, M. Norrish, Barendregt’s Variable Convention in Rule Inductions, in: F. Pfenning (Ed.), Automated Deduction – CADE-21: 21st International Conference on Automated Deduction Bremen, Germany, July 17-20, 2007 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 35–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vacuum.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Domestic Cat Or Lost Lynx? On The Trail Of The ‘Paris Tiger,’ IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Initial Small Community Air Service Development Projects Have Achieved Mixed Results, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Emmerling-Baker, A Qualitative Interpretive Phenomenological Study of K5 Teacher Perceptions of Classroom Empathy Instruction, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Comics Series Ending, New York Times. (2017) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVacuum
ISSN (print)0042-207X
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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