How to format your references using the Vacuum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vacuum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.C.J. Godfray Jr, Linnaeus in the information age, Nature. 446 (2007) 259–260.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.E. Wimmer, D. Shohamy, Preference by association: how memory mechanisms in the hippocampus bias decisions, Science. 338 (2012) 270–273.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Janjić, R. Sharan, N. Pržulj, Modelling the yeast interactome, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4273.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q. Wang, Y. Yang, H. Jiang, C.T. Liu, H.H. Ruan, J. Lu, Superior tensile ductility in bulk metallic glass with gradient amorphous structure, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-C. Valière, Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
S. Imani Yengejeh, A Primer on the Geometry of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Modifications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J. De Vries, M.J.L. De Jongste, G. Spincemaille, M.J. Staal, Spinal cord stimulation for ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease, in: J.D. Pickard, N. Akalan, C.D. Rocco, V.V. Dolenc, J.L. Antunes, J.J.A. Mooij, J. Schramm, M. Sindou (Eds.), Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, Springer, Vienna, 2007: pp. 63–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vacuum.

Blog post
T. Hale, Interactive Maps Show The Devastating Effects Of Dropping Nuclear Bombs, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Aid: Financial Assistance to Scholarship Athletes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Swartz, The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
M. Pilon, American Is Suspended, New York Times. (2014) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVacuum
ISSN (print)0042-207X
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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