How to format your references using the Computer-Aided Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer-Aided Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. Los Alamos “loses” key weapons data. Nature 2000;405:725.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupovic M, Bamford DH. Virology. Revealing virus-host interplay. Science 2011;333:45–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pavlidis I, Eberhardt NL, Levine JA. Seeing through the face of deception. Nature 2002;415:35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fradin C, Braslau A, Luzet D, Smilgies D, Alba M, Boudet N, et al. Reduction in the surface energy of liquid interfaces at short length scales. Nature 2000;403:871–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul CR. Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Mahboob A, Barratt L, editors. Englishes in Multilingual Contexts: Language Variation and Education. vol. 10. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Saha I, Plewczyński D, Maulik U, Bandyopadhyay S. Consensus Multiobjective Differential Crisp Clustering for Categorical Data Analysis. In: Szczuka M, Kryszkiewicz M, Ramanna S, Jensen R, Hu Q, editors. Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing: 7th International Conference, RSCTC 2010, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30,2010. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 30–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer-Aided Design.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Horizons Reveals The Mystery Of Kerberos. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Federal and Private Research and Development Efforts To Conserve Energy by Reducing Electric Power Transmission Losses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moyer AS. The A+ Schools Program and School Improvement. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Once Ordered Removed, Statue Is Now Embraced by Church. New York Times 2016:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer-Aided Design
AbbreviationComput. Aided Des.
ISSN (print)0010-4485
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles