How to format your references using the Computer-Aided Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer-Aided Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snow RW. The invisible victims. Nature 2004;430:934–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maxfield FR, Tabas I. Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. Nature 2005;438:612–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young KV, Brodie ED Jr, Brodie ED 3rd. How the horned lizard got its horns. Science 2004;304:65.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zeqiraj E, Filippi BM, Deak M, Alessi DR, van Aalten DMF. Structure of the LKB1-STRAD-MO25 complex reveals an allosteric mechanism of kinase activation. Science 2009;326:1707–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher MJ. Retirement Portfolios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Mikosch T, Kreiß J-P, Davis RA, Andersen TG, editors. Handbook of Financial Time Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Santodonato LJ, Liaw PK. Advanced Characterization Techniques. In: Gao MC, Yeh J-W, Liaw PK, Zhang Y, editors. High-Entropy Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 115–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer-Aided Design.

Blog post
Evans K. This Startup Cleans Up Algae From Infested Lakes And Uses It To Make Shoes. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Farmers Home Administration: Half-Billion Dollar ADP Modernization Lacks Adequate Planning and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payan Venegas R. Factors associated with the lack of a regular health care provider for Latinos: Consequences and reasons. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Battle Lines on Broadway: Little Slips vs. Big Type. New York Times 2000:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer-Aided Design
AbbreviationComput. Aided Des.
ISSN (print)0010-4485
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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