How to format your references using the Soft Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nave K-A. Myelination and Support of Axonal Integrity by Glia. Nature. 2010;468(7321):244–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Archer D, Martin P. Ocean Circulation. Thin Walls Tell the Tale. Science. 2001;294(5549):2108–2109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Greiner M, Regal CA, Jin DS. Emergence of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate from a Fermi Gas. Nature. 2003;426(6966):537–540.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Oppenheimer M, O’Neill BC, Webster M, Agrawala S. Climate Change. The Limits of Consensus. Science. 2007;317(5844):1505–1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heiberger RM. Computation for the Analysis of Designed Experiments; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 8th International Symposium, FoIKS 2014, Bordeaux, France, March 3-7, 2014. Proceedings; Beierle, C.; Meghini, C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 8367.
A chapter in an edited book
He C, Lewis A, Jo J. A Novel Human Computer Interaction Paradigm for Volume Visualization in Projection-Based Virtual Environments. In Smart Graphics: 8th International Symposium, SG 2007, Kyoto, Japan, June 25-27, 2007. Proceedings; Butz, A.; Fisher, B.; Krüger, A.; Olivier, P.; Owada, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Understanding Sleep Paralysis: A Terrifying But Unique State Of Consciousness (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Posting Notices at Domestic Airports; RCED-97-88R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao Q. East Asian Backpacker Tourists’ Motivations for Participating in Backpacking. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Where Culture and Traffic Intersect, a Dispute. New York Times, 2002, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Robotics
ISSN (print)2169-5172
ISSN (online)2169-5180

Other styles