How to format your references using the Soft Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker NJ. Tech.Sight. A Technique Whose Time Has Come. Science. 2002;296(5567):557–559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thorsteinsdóttir H, Sáenz TW. History of Science. Tackling Meningitis in Africa. Science. 2012;338(6114):1546–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero P, van Dam JA, Kouwenhoven LP. Quantum Supercurrent Transistors in Carbon Nanotubes. Nature. 2006;439(7079):953–956.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bussey DBJ, Fristad KE, Schenk PM, Robinson MS, Spudis PD. Planetary Science: Constant Illumination at the Lunar North Pole. Nature. 2005;434(7035):842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang Y, Wen F, Xiao M. Quantum Control of Multi-Wave Mixing; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use: 11th International Workshop, CRIWG 2005, Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, September 25-29, 2005. Proceedings; Fukś, H.; Lukosch, S.; Salgado, A. C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3706.
A chapter in an edited book
Sukhoivanov IA, Guryev IV. Band Structure Computation of 2D and 3D Photonic Crystals. In Photonic Crystals: Physics and Practical Modeling; Guryev, I. V., Ed.; Springer Series in Optical Sciences; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 67–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew D. What Does “The Dark Side” Of The Moon Look Like? (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FWS: Migratory Bird Hunting--Late Seasons and Bag Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; OGC-99-19; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noll RT. Physician Acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in Outpatient Settings: A Quantitative Analysis of Family Medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Girding for Anniversary Of Tragedy in Dallas. New York Times, 2012, A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Robotics
ISSN (print)2169-5172
ISSN (online)2169-5180

Other styles