How to format your references using the Soft Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rusbridger A. Scientists Must Speak up on Fossil-Fuel Divestment. Nature. 2015;520(7547):265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mel’nikov AS, Vinokur VM. Mesoscopic Superconductor as a Ballistic Quantum Switch. Nature. 2002;415(6867):60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCloskey J, Nalbant SS, Steacy S. Indonesian Earthquake: Earthquake Risk from Co-Seismic Stress. Nature. 2005;434(7031):291.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Egorov AV, Hamam BN, Fransén E, Hasselmo ME, Alonso AA. Graded Persistent Activity in Entorhinal Cortex Neurons. Nature. 2002;420(6912):173–178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy G, Levin B. The Biostatistics of Aging; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Human Interaction with Machines: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop Held at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University, March 15–16, 2005; Hommel, G.; Huanye, S., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Nahle S, Malouch N. Placement Algorithms for WiMAX Mesh Network. In Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking: 8th International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2008 St. Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings; Balandin, S.; Moltchanov, D.; Koucheryavy, Y., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Robotics.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What Is Habitat III And Why Does It Matter? A Beginner’s Guide To The New Urban Agenda (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Prekindergarten: Four Selected States Expanded Access by Relying on Schools and Existing Providers of Early Education and Care to Provide Services; GAO-04-852; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF. The Business of Evangelism: A Phenomenological Study of Frustration and Attrition among Christian Evangelists. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times, 2015, C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Robotics
ISSN (print)2169-5172
ISSN (online)2169-5180

Other styles