How to format your references using the Soft Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Conference Management. Nature. 2003;426(6968):911.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elser J, Bennett E. Phosphorus Cycle: A Broken Biogeochemical Cycle. Nature. 2011;478(7367):29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maertens GN, Hare S, Cherepanov P. The Mechanism of Retroviral Integration from X-Ray Structures of Its Key Intermediates. Nature. 2010;468(7321):326–329.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cerrano C, Cardini U, Bianchelli S, Corinaldesi C, Pusceddu A, Danovaro R. Red Coral Extinction Risk Enhanced by Ocean Acidification. Sci. Rep. 2013;31457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan W. Crop Variety Trials; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Operator Theory, Analysis and Mathematical Physics; Janas, J.; Kurasov, P.; Laptev, A.; Naboko, S.; Stolz, G., Eds.; Operator Theory: Advances and Applications; Birkhäuser: Basel, 2007; Vol. 174.
A chapter in an edited book
La Bruzzo S, Manghi P, Bardi A. OAIzer: Configurable OAI Exports over Relational Databases. In Metadata and Semantics Research: 7th Research Conference, MTSR 2013, Thessaloniki, Greece, November 19-22, 2013. Proceedings; Garoufallou, E.; Greenberg, J., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013; pp. 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Flexible Electronic Skin Allows Humans To “Sense” Magnetic Fields (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1998-2000--1999 Update; IAP-98-15; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuentez OL. Proposition 21: Juveniles Tried as Adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yeh J. Little Moments. New York Times, 2016, BR44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Robotics
ISSN (print)2169-5172
ISSN (online)2169-5180

Other styles