How to format your references using the Soft Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madariaga R. Geophysics. Slippery When Hot. Science. 2007;316(5826):842–843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz HN, Schulz HD. Large Sulfur Bacteria and the Formation of Phosphorite. Science. 2005;307(5708):416–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus. Nature. 2009;459(7249):931–939.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jové M, Naudí A, Aledo JC, Cabré R, Ayala V, Portero-Otin M, Barja G, Pamplona R. Plasma Long-Chain Free Fatty Acids Predict Mammalian Longevity. Sci. Rep. 2013;33346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steland A. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Tomasi D. The Power of the Terroir: The Case Study of Prosecco Wine; Gaiotti, F.; Jones, G. V., Eds.; Springer: Basel, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Bacigalupo J, Delgado R, Muñoz Y, O’Day P. TRP Channels in Visual Transduction. In TRP Channels in Sensory Transduction; Madrid, R.; Bacigalupo, J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 97–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Robotics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Apollo Astronaut Says Aliens Prevented A Nuclear War On Earth (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ICBM Modernization: Status of the Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Missile System; NSIAD-89-64; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holloway CM. Evaluating Five Leadership Traits in the Rising Stars Succession Planning Program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Khodarkovsky M. Russia’s Age-Old Identity Question. New York Times, 2017, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Robotics
ISSN (print)2169-5172
ISSN (online)2169-5180

Other styles