How to format your references using the Field Crops Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Field Crops Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeng, N., 2003. Atmospheric science. Drought in the Sahel. Science 302, 999–1000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gin, D.L., Noble, R.D., 2011. Chemistry. Designing the next generation of chemical separation membranes. Science 332, 674–676.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perryman, S.A.M., Clark, S.J., West, J.S., 2014. Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit. Sci. Rep. 4, 6568.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Freitas-Junior, L.H., Bottius, E., Pirrit, L.A., Deitsch, K.W., Scheidig, C., Guinet, F., Nehrbass, U., Wellems, T.E., Scherf, A., 2000. Frequent ectopic recombination of virulence factor genes in telomeric chromosome clusters of P. falciparum. Nature 407, 1018–1022.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng, K.K., 2009. Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Begun, V., Jenkovszky, L.L., Polański, A. (Eds.), 2009. Progress in HighEnergy Physics and Nuclear Safety, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Sloot, B., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F., 2012. Google and Personal Data Protection, in: Lopez-Tarruella, A. (Ed.), Google and the Law: Empirical Approaches to Legal Aspects of Knowledge-Economy Business Models, Information Technology and Law Series. T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 75–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Field Crops Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Study Suggests Free Will Is An Illusion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Battlefield Automation: Field Artillery Data Systems Acquisition Problems and Budget Impacts (No. NSIAD-89-95BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shlapak, A., 2013. Mental health of foster youth in Ventura County (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Deep Into the Wild With Jane Goodall. New York Times C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zeng, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gin and Noble, 2011; Zeng, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gin and Noble, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Freitas-Junior et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleField Crops Research
AbbreviationField Crops Res.
ISSN (print)0378-4290
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science

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