How to format your references using the Computational Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Attractive information, Nature. 435 (2005) 529.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.J. Song, F.A. Tezcan, A designed supramolecular protein assembly with in vivo enzymatic activity, Science. 346 (2014) 1525–1528.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.T. Gwynne, K.A. Judge, C.D. Kelly, Evidence for male allocation in pipefish?, Nature. 466 (2010) E11; discussion E12.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.R. Finnerty, K. Pang, P. Burton, D. Paulson, M.Q. Martindale, Origins of bilateral symmetry: Hox and dpp expression in a sea anemone, Science. 304 (2004) 1335–1337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.-Y. Chen, NeuroInvesting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A.-O. Schäfer, MRI of Rectal Cancer: Clinical Atlas, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Mühling, P. Hubwieser, M. Berges, Dimensions of Programming Knowledge, in: A. Brodnik, J. Vahrenhold (Eds.), Informatics in Schools. Curricula, Competences, and Competitions: 8th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2015, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 28 - October 1, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 32–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Toxicology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Australia’s Biggest Dust Storm Went On To Green The Ocean, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information on the Labor Department’s Skill Training Improvement Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.M. Sanghvi, Characterization of algal biomeal for applications in food, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, N. MacFARQUHAR, New Cease-Fire Begins in Syria, but Violations Are Reported Within Hours, New York Times. (2016) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Toxicology
AbbreviationComput. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-1113

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