How to format your references using the Computational Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.A. Hutchings, Collapse and recovery of marine fishes, Nature. 406 (2000) 882–885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y.A. Minamishima, W.G. Kaelin Jr, Reactivation of hepatic EPO synthesis in mice after PHD loss, Science. 329 (2010) 407.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Wessling, L.G. Morcillo, S. Abdu, Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. He, X. He, V.P. Dave, Y. Zhang, X. Hua, E. Nicolas, W. Xu, B.A. Roe, D.J. Kappes, The zinc finger transcription factor Th-POK regulates CD4 versus CD8 T-cell lineage commitment, Nature. 433 (2005) 826–833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Siddiqi, Intelligent Credit Scoring, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
C.W. Gruber, M.G. Clark, S.H. Klempe, J. Valsiner, eds., Constraints of Agency: Explorations of Theory in Everyday Life, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Lucks, A. Schuler, E. Tews, R.-P. Weinmann, M. Wenzel, Attacks on the DECT Authentication Mechanisms, in: M. Fischlin (Ed.), Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2009: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 20-24, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 48–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Toxicology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, 200,000 More Children Have Been Vaccinated In Australia Following New Policies, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns Would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System [Reissued on September 18, 2012], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.W. Wright, The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, Jets Face a Simple Test, Knowing How Hard It Is, New York Times. (2016) SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Toxicology
AbbreviationComput. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-1113

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