How to format your references using the Computational Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.S. Mattick, The functional genomics of noncoding RNA, Science. 309 (2005) 1527–1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.J. Huneycutt, R.J. Saykally, Chemistry. Building solutions--one molecule at a time, Science. 299 (2003) 1329–1330.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Dharmasiri, S. Dharmasiri, M. Estelle, The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor, Nature. 435 (2005) 441–445.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Horii, Y. Arai, M. Yamazaki, S. Morita, M. Kimura, M. Itoh, Y. Abe, I. Hatada, Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.B. Anderson, R. Johannesson, Understanding Information Transmission, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
S. Arik, T. Huang, W.K. Lai, Q. Liu, eds., Neural Information Processing: 22nd International Conference, ICONIP 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, November 9-12, 2015, Proceedings Part III, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T.F. O’Connor, S. Savagatrup, D.J. Lipomi, Soft Power: Stretchable and Ultra-Flexible Energy Sources for Wearable and Implantable Devices, in: J.A. Rogers, R. Ghaffari, D.-H. Kim (Eds.), Stretchable Bioelectronics for Medical Devices and Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 69–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Toxicology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, We Care About Dementia, But We Often Don’t Know What Causes It, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Legislative and Regulatory Actions Needed To Deal With a Changing Domestic Telecommunications Industry, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.A. Brown, Silenced Voices That Cry in the Night: The Transformative Experience of Spouses of Wounded Warriors - Is it Transformative Learning? A Phenomenological Study, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Montague, A Storied Name in Soccer Faces an Uncertain Future, New York Times. (2017) B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Toxicology
AbbreviationComput. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-1113

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