How to format your references using the Computational Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, Neuroscience: genomics on the brain, Nature. 426 (2003) 757.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.-Y. Liu, A.J. Bard, Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film, Nature. 418 (2002) 162–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.A. Wood, L.B. Poole, P.A. Karplus, Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling, Science. 300 (2003) 650–653.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.P. Weber, N. Gedik, J.E. Moore, J. Orenstein, J. Stephens, D.D. Awschalom, Observation of spin Coulomb drag in a two-dimensional electron gas, Nature. 437 (2005) 1330–1333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Turner, T.A. Durham, Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Y. Wang, T. Li, eds., Knowledge Engineering and Management: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Collier, A Dynamical Approach to Identity and Diversity in Complex Systems, in: P. Cilliers, R. Preiser (Eds.), Complexity, Difference and Identity: An Ethical Perspective, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Toxicology.

Blog post
J. Davis, WHO Releases Hit List Of 12 Bacteria That Pose Biggest Threat To Human Health, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Data Mining: Early Attention to Privacy in Developing a Key DHS Program Could Reduce Risks, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.G. Hitchins, Domain Disparity: Informing the Debate between Domain-General and Domain-Specific Information Processing in Working Memory, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, LIPA Ponders Fate of Wind Farm as Costs Rise, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Toxicology
AbbreviationComput. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2468-1113

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