How to format your references using the Computational Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2003;425:644.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Groisman A, Steinberg V. Efficient mixing at low Reynolds numbers using polymer additives. Nature. 2001;410:905–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stevens RC, Yokoyama S, Wilson IA. Global efforts in structural genomics. Science. 2001;294:89–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Coey JMD, Venkatesan M, Fitzgerald CB, Douvalis AP, Sanders IS. Ferromagnetism of a graphite nodule from the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Nature. 2002;420:156–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Teodorescu PP, Kecs WW, Toma A. Distribution Theory. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1. Won C-H, Schrader CB, Michel AN, editors. Advances in Statistical Control, Algebraic Systems Theory, and Dynamic Systems Characteristics: A Tribute to Michael K. Sain. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yang C, Yang Y, Liu J. Model Fusion-Based Batch Learning with Application to Oil Spills Detection. In: Jiang H, Ding W, Ali M, Wu X, editors. Advanced Research in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 25th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2012, Dalian, China, June 9-12, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 40–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Social Networks.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Hurricane Matthew Unearthed These Hidden Civil War Cannonballs In South Carolina [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 Jan. Report No.: RCED-84-30.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cordova M. The impact of a teacher training program on student engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rosenberg M, Markoff J. At Heart of U.S. Strategy, Weapons That Can Think. New York Times. 2016 Oct 25;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Social Networks
AbbreviationComput. Soc. Netw.
ISSN (online)2197-4314

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