How to format your references using the Computational Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mawet D. PLANETARY SCIENCE. Eyeing up a Jupiter-like exoplanet. Science. 2015;350:39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chinsamy A, Elzanowski A. Bone histology. Evolution of growth pattern in birds. Nature. 2001;412:402–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wörsdörfer B, Woycechowsky KJ, Hilvert D. Directed evolution of a protein container. Science. 2011;331:589–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Azzouz M, Ralph GS, Storkebaum E, Walmsley LE, Mitrophanous KA, Kingsman SM, et al. VEGF delivery with retrogradely transported lentivector prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model. Nature. 2004;429:413–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Frank WL, Whittle DK. Revalidating Process Hazard Analyses. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Constanda C, Potapenko S, editors. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Techniques and Applications. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chippendale P, Lanz O. Optimised Meeting Recording and Annotation Using Real-Time Video Analysis. In: Popescu-Belis A, Stiefelhagen R, editors. Machine Learning for Multimodal Interaction: 5th International Workshop, MLMI 2008, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 8-10, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 50–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Social Networks.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Water Stays Frozen Above Boiling Point When Trapped In Carbon Nanotubes. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Purchase and Preparation of Television Commercials by the Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Mar. Report No.: LCD-77-415.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mikhailik Y. Longing Limned [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus S. Stride Rights. New York Times. 2015 Apr 23;MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Social Networks
AbbreviationComput. Soc. Netw.
ISSN (online)2197-4314

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