How to format your references using the Computational Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Winnacker E-L. A chance to drive forward Europe’s science. Nature. 2013;495:283.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bowerman B, O’Rourke SM. Development. Pushing your back into place. Science. 2012;336:984–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sambanis N, Schulhofer-Wohl J, Shayo M. Social psychology. Parochialism as a central challenge in counterinsurgency. Science. 2012;336:805–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Winther-Jensen B, Winther-Jensen O, Forsyth M, Macfarlane DR. High rates of oxygen reduction over a vapor phase-polymerized PEDOT electrode. Science. 2008;321:671–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hill R, Solt G. Engineering Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Powietrzynska M, Tobin K, editors. Mindfulness and Educating Citizens for Everyday Life. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rovaris D, Cugno S, Forni V, Cuzziol P, Molinari E, Castelnuovo G. Aspetti fisiologici del dolore. In: Castelnuovo G, editor. Psicologia clinica del dolore. Milano: Springer; 2010. p. 25–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Social Networks.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How Does A Computer Know Where You’re Looking? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Regulations: Regulatory Cost Estimates Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jul. Report No.: RCED-92-110.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hilton LC. Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper H, Shear MD, Searcey D. Travel Ban on Chad Could Harm American Interests, Officials Say. New York Times. 2017 Sep 26;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Social Networks
AbbreviationComput. Soc. Netw.
ISSN (online)2197-4314

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