How to format your references using the Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, R. Finding the True Value of US Climate Science. Nature 2012, 482, 133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthews, H.D.; Solomon, S. Atmosphere. Irreversible Does Not Mean Unavoidable. Science 2013, 340, 438–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinnon, L.; Nol, E.; Juillet, C. Arctic-Nesting Birds Find Physiological Relief in the Face of Trophic Constraints. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1816.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saarela, J.M.; Rai, H.S.; Doyle, J.A.; Endress, P.K.; Mathews, S.; Marchant, A.D.; Briggs, B.G.; Graham, S.W. Hydatellaceae Identified as a New Branch near the Base of the Angiosperm Phylogenetic Tree. Nature 2007, 446, 312–315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, G. The Making of a World City; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118609705.
An edited book
Advances in Data Mining. Applications and Theoretical Aspects: 11th Industrial Conference, ICDM 2011, New York, NY, USA, August 30 – September 3, 2011. Proceedings; Perner, P., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 6870; ISBN 9783642231834.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Z.-R.; Yu, H.-Y.; Zheng, J.; Qian, L.-M.; Yan, Y. Effect of the Oral Environment on the Tribological Behavior of Human Teeth. In Dental Biotribology; Yu, H.-Y., Zheng, J., Qian, L.-M., Yan, Y., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 75–115 ISBN 9781461445494.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computation.

Blog post
Hale, T. Why Was A Child’s “5+5+5=15” Answer Marked As Incorrect? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Station: Impact of the Expanded Russian Role on Funding and Research; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clater, M.J. Interposed between God and Man: Agency in the Requiems of Berlioz and Fauré. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. After the Guests Have Left. New York Times 2014, ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputation
AbbreviationComputation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-3197

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