How to format your references using the Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rahmstorf, S. A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise. Science 2007, 315, 368–370.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lawler, A.; Mervis, J. 2001 BUDGET: NSF and NASA Score Last-Minute Victories. Science 2000, 290, 683a.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y.; Ran, S.; Yang, G. Single Molecular Investigation of DNA Looping and Aggregation by Restriction Endonuclease BspMI. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5897.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Imre, A.; Csaba, G.; Ji, L.; Orlov, A.; Bernstein, G.H.; Porod, W. Majority Logic Gate for Magnetic Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata. Science 2006, 311, 205–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansorge, R. Mathematical Models of Fluiddynamics; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005; ISBN 9783527602773.
An edited book
Electrochemistry for the Environment; Comninellis, C., Chen, G., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; ISBN 9780387369228.
A chapter in an edited book
Imono, M.; Yoshimura, E.; Tsuchiya, S.; Watabe, H. Method of Embodying the Newspaper Headlines by Using Words and Phrases in the Article. In Knowledge-Based Information Systems in Practice; Tweedale, J.W., Jain, L.C., Watada, J., Howlett, R.J., Eds.; Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 51–63 ISBN 9783319135441.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computation.

Blog post
Hale, T. Watch This Homemade Electromagnetic Gun Vaporize A Piggybank Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Desert Shield and Desert Storm Reports and Testimonies: 1991-93; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jiang, W. Advanced Techniques for Semantic Concept Detection in General Videos. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. Goodbye, Mr. Medium. New York Times 2016, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputation
AbbreviationComputation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-3197

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