How to format your references using the Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein, L. US election: Know your representatives. Nature 2012, 489, 494–495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bannister, A.J.; Kouzarides, T. Reversing histone methylation. Nature 2005, 436, 1103–1106.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, C. Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont. Nature 2011, 472, 181–185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ho, D.G.; Gao, R.; Celaje, J.; Chung, H.-Y.; Selke, M. Phosphadioxirane: a peroxide from an ortho-substituted arylphosphine and singlet dioxygen. Science 2003, 302, 259–262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, R. Global Credit Management; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2004; ISBN 9781118673300.
An edited book
Trusted Systems: 5th International Conference, INTRUST 2013, Graz, Austria, December 4-5, 2013, Proceedings; Bloem, R., Lipp, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013; Vol. 8292; ISBN 9783319034904.
A chapter in an edited book
Nepple, K.G.; Sandhu, G.S.; Kibel, A.S. Percent Free PSA. In Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: PSA, Biopsy and Beyond; Jones, J.S., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2013; pp. 51–60 ISBN 9781627031875.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computation.

Blog post
Taub, B. New Research Shows How Pleasure And Positivity Mobilize The Body’s Immune System Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Systems Modernization: Management and Technical Weaknesses Must Be Corrected If Modernization Is to Succeed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kay, V.L. A single mother and child welfare: A personal narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. Seeing and Being Seen, Across Millenniums. New York Times 2013, WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputation
AbbreviationComputation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-3197

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