How to format your references using the Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ernst, T. Engineering. Controlling the Polarity of Silicon Nanowire Transistors. Science 2013, 340, 1414–1415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan, W.-B.; Fan, H. Single-Photon Quantum Router with Multiple Output Ports. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulton, S.W.; Fralick, P.W.; Canfield, D.E. The Transition to a Sulphidic Ocean Approximately 1.84 Billion Years Ago. Nature 2004, 431, 173–177.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lilburn, T.G.; Kim, K.S.; Ostrom, N.E.; Byzek, K.R.; Leadbetter, J.R.; Breznak, J.A. Nitrogen Fixation by Symbiotic and Free-Living Spirochetes. Science 2001, 292, 2495–2498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Buchstaller, I. Quotatives; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118584415.
An edited book
Visions in Mathematics: GAFA 2000 Special Volume, Part II; Alon, N., Bourgain, J., Connes, A., Gromov, M., Milman, V., Eds.; Modern Birkhäuser Classics; Birkhäuser: Basel, 2010; ISBN 9783034604246.
A chapter in an edited book
Stan, A.; Pop, F.-C.; Cremene, M.; Giurgiu, M.; Pallez, D. Interactive Intonation Optimisation Using CMA-ES and DCT Parameterisation of the F0 Contour for Speech Synthesis. In Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2011); Pelta, D.A., Krasnogor, N., Dumitrescu, D., Chira, C., Lung, R., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 57–71 ISBN 9783642240935.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computation.

Blog post
Fang, J. Polar Bear Shatters Previous Dive Record While Stalking Seals Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Management: Improvements Needed in Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Governmentwide; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaw, R.M. The Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Attitudes towards Information Security Policy. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chumsky, S. Two Legacies, Now Home to Roost. New York Times 2013, E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputation
AbbreviationComputation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-3197

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