How to format your references using the Composites Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Parkin, Chemistry. Zinc-zinc bonds: a new frontier, Science. 305 (2004) 1117–1118.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Wheeler, J. von Braun, Climate change impacts on global food security, Science. 341 (2013) 508–513.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Palenzuela, L. Lehner, S.L. Liebling, Dual jets from binary black holes, Science. 329 (2010) 927–930.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Roosen-Runge, F. Zhang, F. Schreiber, R. Roth, Ion-activated attractive patches as a mechanism for controlled protein interactions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7016.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Paultre, Dynamics of Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P. Cortés, E. Maeso-González, A. Escudero-Santana, eds., Enhancing Synergies in a Collaborative Environment, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Czeizler, C. Gratie, W.K. Chiu, K. Kanhaiya, I. Petre, Target Controllability of Linear Networks, in: E. Bartocci, P. Lio, N. Paoletti (Eds.), Computational Methods in Systems Biology: 14th International Conference, CMSB 2016, Cambridge, UK, September 21-23, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Science and Technology.

Blog post
T. Hale, You Can Draw Electrical Circuits With This Silver Pen, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.Y. Pelayo, A program to increase health literacy for older Latino adults residing in La Habra, California: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, Donald Trump Hits the Town, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Science and Technology
AbbreviationCompos. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0266-3538
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

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