How to format your references using the Composites Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Kratky, A coordinated approach is key for open access, Nature. 500 (2013) 503.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.C. Martin, E.M. Schuman, NEUROSCIENCE. Opting in or out of the network, Science. 350 (2015) 1477–1478.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Toyoshima, H. Nomura, T. Tsuda, Lumenal gating mechanism revealed in calcium pump crystal structures with phosphate analogues, Nature. 432 (2004) 361–368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Brauchle, S. Thude, S.Y. Brucker, K. Schenke-Layland, Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Imrie, E. Street, Architectural Design and Regulation, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
W. Leal Filho, ed., Transformative Approaches to Sustainable Development at Universities: Working Across Disciplines, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Downs, G.A. Jones, Möbius Inversion in Suzuki Groups and Enumeration of Regular Objects, in: J. Širáň, R. Jajcay (Eds.), Symmetries in Graphs, Maps, and Polytopes: 5th SIGMAP Workshop, West Malvern, UK, July 2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 97–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Science and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Is Social Media Making People Depressed?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Communications Commission: Competitive Bidding Procedures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Dang, The cummulative incidence estimate versus the Kaplan Meier method in medical research, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Loomis, Mozart Is the Big Draw, but Variety Is the Goal, New York Times. (2013) 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Science and Technology
AbbreviationCompos. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0266-3538
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

Other styles