How to format your references using the Composites Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.M. Witmer, Nostril position in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function, Science. 293 (2001) 850–853.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.L. Hoffman, B.L. McNaughton, Coordinated reactivation of distributed memory traces in primate neocortex, Science. 297 (2002) 2070–2073.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Lutz, W. Sanderson, S. Scherbov, The coming acceleration of global population ageing, Nature. 451 (2008) 716–719.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Faham, A. Watanabe, G.M. Besserer, D. Cascio, A. Specht, B.A. Hirayama, E.M. Wright, J. Abramson, The crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveals mechanistic insights into Na+/sugar symport, Science. 321 (2008) 810–814.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Massotte, P. Corsi, Smart Decisions in Complex Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
D. Feitelson, E. Frachtenberg, L. Rudolph, U. Schwiegelshohn, eds., Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing: 11th International Workshop, JSSPP 2005, Cambridge, MA, USA, June 19, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Sturmey, D.E. Williams, Behavioral Assessment and Treatment: An Overview, in: D.E. Williams (Ed.), Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Science and Technology.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Snakes Became Resistant To Their Toxic Newt Prey, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Public Transportation: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Communication and Transparency of Changes Made to the New Starts Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Li, An explicative model of leisure-time physical activities among church-going African Americans in Indianapolis, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Rosenberg, Acquitted, but Still Haunted by Jail and DNA Used Against Him, New York Times. (2017) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Science and Technology
AbbreviationCompos. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0266-3538
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

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