How to format your references using the Composites Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Torquato, Glass transition. Hard knock for thermodynamics, Nature. 405 (2000) 521, 523.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Finkelstein, E. Piasetzky, Comment on “14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings,” Science. 302 (2003) 568; author reply 568.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.A. Armstrong, F. Mohideen, C.D. Lima, Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2, Nature. 483 (2012) 59–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. de Bono, D.M. Tobin, M.W. Davis, L. Avery, C.I. Bargmann, Social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by neurons that detect aversive stimuli, Nature. 419 (2002) 899–903.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Dormieux, D. Kondo, Micromechanics of Fracture and Damage, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
N. Maffulli, ed., Platelet Rich Plasma in Musculoskeletal Practice, Springer, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Stival, L. del C. Puga Molina, B. Paudel, M.G. Buffone, P.E. Visconti, D. Krapf, Sperm Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction in Mammalian Sperm, in: M.G. Buffone (Ed.), Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Science and Technology.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Saturated Fats Make Some Cells Lose Track Of Time – And That’s Bad, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation: Comparison of Airline “Customer Service Commitment” With Contracts of Carriage and Federal Law, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Jones, Educational paradigm shift: Emergence of the virtual classroom, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Quain, The Light-Sensing Technology Carmakers Are Clamoring For, New York Times. (2017) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Science and Technology
AbbreviationCompos. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0266-3538
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

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