How to format your references using the Composites Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composites Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Nadis, Brookhaven collider opens its quest for Big Bang conditions, Nature. 405 (2000) 874.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Malik, R.G. Roeder, Biochemistry. Have your PIC!, Science. 342 (2013) 706–707.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.J. Nederbragt, A.E. van Loon, W.J.A.G. Dictus, Evolutionary biology: hedgehog crosses the snail’s midline, Nature. 417 (2002) 811–812.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. van der Marel, H.J.A. Molegraaf, J. Zaanen, Z. Nussinov, F. Carbone, A. Damascelli, H. Eisaki, M. Greven, P.H. Kes, M. Li, Quantum critical behaviour in a high-T(c) superconductor, Nature. 425 (2003) 271–274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.K. Hyatt, B.R. Hopkins, The Law of Tax-Exempt Healthcare Organizations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
L. Michael, A. Kakas, eds., Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 15th European Conference, JELIA 2016, Larnaca, Cyprus, November 9-11, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Becvar, J. Hollan, E. Hutchins, Representational Gestures as Cognitive Artifacts for Developing Theories in a Scientific Laboratory, in: C.A. Halverson, T. Erickson, W.A. Kellogg (Eds.), Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts: Theory in CSCW, Springer, London, 2008: pp. 117–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composites Science and Technology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Songbirds Share Our Musical Scales, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. De La Cruz, School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Political Memo; The New Year at a New Age Retreat: The Clintons in Agreeable Company, New York Times. (1992) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposites Science and Technology
AbbreviationCompos. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0266-3538
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

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