How to format your references using the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Garra, Anne.: 2013. 'Brigitte Askonas (1923-2013).' Nature 494(7435), pp. 37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watanabe, Naoki, and Timothy J. Mitchison.: 2002. 'Single-molecule speckle analysis of actin filament turnover in lamellipodia.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5557), pp. 1083–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pahwa, Sakshi, Caterina Scoglio, and Antonio Scala.: 2014. 'Abruptness of cascade failures in power grids.' Scientific reports 4, pp. 3694.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naqvi, Nasir H., David Rudrauf, Hanna Damasio, et al.: 2007. 'Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5811), pp. 531–534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klöpffer, Walter.: 2012. 'Verhalten und Abbau von Umweltchemikalien.' Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Morava, Eva, Matthias Baumgartner, Marc Patterson, et al., eds.: 2016. 'JIMD Reports, Volume 29.' 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hassell, Joseph, Boanerges Aleman-Meza, and I. Budak Arpinar.: 2006. 'Ontology-Driven Automatic Entity Disambiguation in Unstructured Text'. In The Semantic Web - ISWC 2006: 5th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2006, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. Isabel Cruz, Stefan Decker, Dean Allemang, et al. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer pp. 44–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.

Blog post
Hale, Tom.: 2017. 'The Bizarre Story Of Japan’s First Astronaut.' IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office.: 2014. 'A Capsule Version of: Nanomanufacturing--Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health.' Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mc Adams, Ashley N.: 2012. 'School psychologists’ perceptions of procedural fidelity in special education.'

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, John.: 2017. 'Kaepernick’s Conscience.' New York Times, pp. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Garra 2013).
This sentence cites two references (O’Garra 2013; Watanabe & Mitchison 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watanabe & Mitchison 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Naqvi et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction
AbbreviationUser Model. User-adapt Interact.
ISSN (print)0924-1868
ISSN (online)1573-1391
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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