How to format your references using the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bynum, William.: 2012. 'Nobel success: What makes a great lab?' Nature 490(7418), pp. 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gebbers, Robin, and Viacheslav I. Adamchuk.: 2010. 'Precision agriculture and food security.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 327(5967), pp. 828–831.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waterhouse, P. M., M. B. Wang, and T. Lough.: 2001. 'Gene silencing as an adaptive defence against viruses.' Nature 411(6839), pp. 834–842.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holt, Nancy E., Donatas Zigmantas, Leonas Valkunas, et al.: 2005. 'Carotenoid cation formation and the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5708), pp. 433–436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
He, Zhengyou.: 2016. 'Wavelet Analysis and Transient Signal Processing Applications for Power Systems.' Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Müller, Bernhard, ed.: 2011. 'German Annual of Spatial Research and Policy 2010: Urban Regional Resilience: How Do Cities and Regions Deal with Change?' Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Jinkun, and Xinhua Wang.: 2011. 'Dynamic Sliding Mode Control'. In Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation, ed. Xinhua Wang. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer pp. 111–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle.: 2015. 'Enormous Sinkhole Opens Up In Manchester.' IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office.: 2006. 'Telecommunications: Weaknesses in Procedures and Performance Management Hinder Junk Fax Enforcement.' Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wen, Jiafei.: 2012. 'Moving office document processing into the cloud.'

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling, Mary Kaye.: 2016. 'Paula Cooper.' New York Times, pp. M280.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bynum 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bynum 2012; Gebbers & Adamchuk 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gebbers & Adamchuk 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Holt et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction
AbbreviationUser Model. User-adapt Interact.
ISSN (print)0924-1868
ISSN (online)1573-1391
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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