How to format your references using the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanash, Sam.: 2003. 'Disease proteomics.' Nature 422(6928), pp. 226–232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Downing, Amy L., and Mathew A. Leibold.: 2002. 'Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs.' Nature 416(6883), pp. 837–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burtally, N., P. J. King, and Michael R. Swift.: 2002. 'Spontaneous air-driven separation in vertically vibrated fine granular mixtures.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5561), pp. 1877–1879.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, Xiao-Chun, Zhan Li, Bao-Chun Zhou, et al.: 2003. 'Palaeontology: a polydactylous amniote from the Triassic period.' Nature 426(6966), pp. 516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, Martin.: 2010. 'From GSM to LTE.' Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, Jiming, Jinglong Wu, Yiyu Yao, et al., eds.: 2009. 'Active Media Technology: 5th International Conference, AMT 2009, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2009. Proceedings.' Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lascarides, Alex, and Nicholas Asher.: 2007. 'Segmented Discourse Representation Theory: Dynamic Semantics With Discourse Structure'. In Computing Meaning, eds. Harry Bunt and Reinhard Muskens. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands pp. 87–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise.: 2014. 'Rosetta Arrives at Comet After 10 Year Voyage.' IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office.: 2000. 'Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ August 2000 Interim Spending Plan.' Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naik, Meghana.: 2017. 'Automating the process of antibiotic susceptibility testing.'

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James.: 2017. 'Theater Evokes a Non-Disposable Experience, And It Starts With What’s Served at the Bar.' New York Times, pp. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanash 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hanash 2003; Downing & Leibold 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Downing & Leibold 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction
AbbreviationUser Model. User-adapt Interact.
ISSN (print)0924-1868
ISSN (online)1573-1391
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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