How to format your references using the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirsch, J. E.: 2002. 'Superconductivity. The true colors of cuprates.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5563), pp. 2226–2227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishida, H., and K. Sawada.: 2001. 'macho-1 encodes a localized mRNA in ascidian eggs that specifies muscle fate during embryogenesis.' Nature 409(6821), pp. 724–729.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, Stuart A., Ido Pen, and Ashleigh S. Griffin.: 2002. 'Cooperation and competition between relatives.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5565), pp. 72–75.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scheffer, Marten, Jordi Bascompte, William A. Brock, et al.: 2009. 'Early-warning signals for critical transitions.' Nature 461(7260), pp. 53–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heller, Dana.: 2011. 'Hairspray.' Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Blot, Joël.: 2014. 'Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control in the Discrete-Time Framework.' ed. Naïla Hayek. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba.: 2015. 'Indications for Spinal Osteotomy'. In Spinal Osteotomy, eds. Yan Wang, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, and Lawrence Lenke. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands pp. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.

Blog post
Fang, Janet.: 2015. 'Stinky Caterpillar Looks Like a Snake With a Fleshy, Forked Tongue.' IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office.: 2007. 'Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends.' Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, Daniel.: 2015. 'Resistance, reluctance, and revelation: Examining faculty perceptions of online learning options at a Faith-Based university.'

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bogle, John C.: 2017. 'Putting Clients Second.' New York Times, pp. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hirsch 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hirsch 2002; Nishida & Sawada 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nishida & Sawada 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheffer et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction
AbbreviationUser Model. User-adapt Interact.
ISSN (print)0924-1868
ISSN (online)1573-1391
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles