How to format your references using the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mantovani, A.: 2000. 'Investigating T-cell memory.' Nature 407(6800), pp. 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, S. C., and J. L. McGrath.: 2000. 'Steps and fluctuations of Listeria monocytogenes during actin-based motility.' Nature 407(6807), pp. 1026–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, Yong, Eva Samal, and Deepak Srivastava.: 2005. 'Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis.' Nature 436(7048), pp. 214–220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, Shaodong, Rosmarie Friemann, Dominique A. Glauser, et al.: 2007. 'Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase.' Nature 448(7149), pp. 92–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin, Peter.: 2010. 'OSx86.' Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Klein, Jan.: 2013. 'Solitude of a Humble Genius - Gregor Johann Mendel: Volume 1: Formative Years.' ed. Norman Klein. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner, Ilya, and Valeria Bertacco.: 2011. 'Consistency Verification using Data Coloring'. In Post-Silicon and Runtime Verification for Modern Processors, ed. Valeria Bertacco. Boston, MA: Springer US pp. 95–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise.: 2014. 'Video Shows What Happens To Hamburger In Stomach Acid.' IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office.: 1994. 'Amtrak: Key Decisions Need to Be Made in the Face of Deteriorating Financial Condition.' Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alderson, Maryanne.: 2017. 'Procedural Justice and Police Encounters with Homeless Injecting Drug Users.'

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, John.: 2016. 'Leslie H. Martinson, 101, Prolific TV Director, Dies.' New York Times, pp. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mantovani 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mantovani 2000; Kuo & McGrath 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuo & McGrath 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleUser Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction
AbbreviationUser Model. User-adapt Interact.
ISSN (print)0924-1868
ISSN (online)1573-1391
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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