How to format your references using the Composite Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composite Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lippard SJ. Chemical synthesis: the art of chemistry. Nature. 2002;416:587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fazleabas AT, Kim JJ. Development. What makes an embryo stick? Science. 2003;299:355–356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spillane SM, Kippenberg TJ, Vahala KJ. Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity. Nature. 2002;415:621–623.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song J, Xu L, Xing R, et al. Synthesis of Au/graphene oxide composites for selective and sensitive electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler H, Coleman B, Hofmann K. Food Industry Design, Technology and Innovation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Giannoccaro I, editor. Behavioral Issues in Operations Management: New Trends in Design, Management, and Methodologies. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Nichols J. Scope of Compensation for Environmental Damage Under the 1992 Civil Liability Convention and the 1992 Fund Convention. In: Maes F, editor. Marine Resource Damage Assessment: Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composite Interfaces.

Blog post
Andrew D. Possibly Habitable Planet Found Around Our Nearest Neighbour Star [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Technology: Five School Districts’ Experiences in Funding Technology Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998. Report No.: HEHS-98-35. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong M. Predictive models of cytotoxicity as mediated by exposure to environmental toxicants and drugs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. E.U. Moves to Set Up Military Training. New York Times. 2017 Mar 6;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposite Interfaces
AbbreviationCompos. Interfaces
ISSN (online)1568-5543
ScopeCeramics and Composites
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
General Physics and Astronomy

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