How to format your references using the Composite Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composite Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway E. Transmission: Control issues. Nature. 2013;502:S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu M, Yu X. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Nature. 2002;418:767–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao M-H, Chen X-P, Wang Q. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Russell RJ, Haire LF, Stevens DJ, et al. The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design. Nature. 2006;443:45–49.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spotte S. Tarpons. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Wilson KC. Slurry Transport Using Centrifugal Pumps. Third Edition. Addie GR, Sellgren A, Clift R, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Matteucci G, Cammarano M, Dezi S, et al. Climate Change Impacts on Forests and Forest Products in the Mediterranean Area. In: Navarra A, Tubiana L, editors. Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Volume 2: Agriculture, Forests and Ecosystem Services and People. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 71–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composite Interfaces.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Seventeen Minor Planets Now Have New Names Thanks To A Competition. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Benefits of Traffic Control Signal Systems Are Not Being Fully Realized. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Report No.: RCED-94-105. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao S. An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Yankees Need One Of Those Comebacks. New York Times. 2010 Oct 20;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposite Interfaces
AbbreviationCompos. Interfaces
ISSN (online)1568-5543
ScopeCeramics and Composites
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
General Physics and Astronomy

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