How to format your references using the Composite Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composite Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brashares JS. Ecology. Filtering wildlife. Science. 2010;329:402–403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trautmann A, Vivier E. Immunology. Agrin--a bridge between the nervous and immune systems. Science. 2001;292:1667–1668.
A journal article with 3 authors
Courtial J, Leach J, Padgett MJ. Fractals in pixellated video feedback. Nature. 2001;414:864.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qian C, You W, Xie D, et al. Turion morphological responses to water nutrient concentrations and plant density in the submerged macrophyte Potamogeton crispus. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola J III. Software Radio Architecture. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Ornbo J. Experience-Based Communication. Sneppen C, Würtz PF, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Sabnis MK, Shukla MK. Model-Based Approach for Shadow Detection of Static Images. In: Chakrabarti A, Sharma N, Balas VE, editors. Advances in Computing Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 49–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composite Interfaces.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Russia Announces Plans To Send Humans Back To The Moon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Utilization at Aberdeen Proving Ground’s ADP Installation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976. Report No.: LCD-76-125. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diggs BJ. African American Online Doctor of Management Students’ Perceptions of Dissertation Writing and Support: Narrative Inquiry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. After the Storm, a Sigh of Relief. New York Times. 2007 Apr 22;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposite Interfaces
AbbreviationCompos. Interfaces
ISSN (online)1568-5543
ScopeCeramics and Composites
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
General Physics and Astronomy

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