How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarmiento EE. Comment on the paleobiology and classification of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science. 2010;328(5982):1105; author reply 1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haug GH, Peterson LC. Obituary: Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006). Nature. 2006;439(7079):928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser CM, Eisen JA, Salzberg SL. Microbial genome sequencing. Nature. 2000;406(6797):799-803.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsai TY-C, Choi YS, Ma W, Pomerening JR, Tang C, Ferrell JE Jr. Robust, tunable biological oscillations from interlinked positive and negative feedback loops. Science. 2008;321(5885):126-129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheinfeld R. Busting Loose from the Business Game. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Badouel E. Petri Net Synthesis. 1st ed. 2015. (Bernardinello L, Darondeau P, eds.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Masoni M, Guelfi MR, Shtylla J. Computer mediated communication. In: Guelfi MR, Masoni M, Conti A, Gensini GF, eds. E-Learning in Sanità: Progettare, Produrre Ed Erogare Corsi Di Formazione Online per l’area Sanitaria. Springer; 2011:17-22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Anti-aging formula slated to begin human trials. IFLScience. Published December 20, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Credit Bureau Reporting Practices by Guaranty Agencies and Lenders. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson P. A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Baggage, New and Old, Arrives at Citi Field. New York Times. April 9, 2011:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Medicine
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)0965-2299
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Complementary and Manual Therapy

Other styles