How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Selling your skills. Nature. 2004;427(6974):570.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pujolle-Robic C, Noirez L. Observation of shear-induced nematic-isotropic transition in side-chain liquid crystal polymers. Nature. 2001;409(6817):167-171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittlinger M, Wehner R, Wolf H. The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps. Science. 2006;312(5782):1965-1967.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ohno M, Sakumi K, Fukumura R, et al. 8-oxoguanine causes spontaneous de novo germline mutations in mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Degner R, Leibl S. PH Messen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Thomas KS. US Spacesuits. (McMann HJ, ed.). New York, NY: Praxis; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Hui P, Buza N. Uterine Mesenchymal Tumors. In: Buza N, ed. Atlas of Intraoperative Frozen Section Diagnosis in Gynecologic Pathology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:95-140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. China Completes World’s Largest Radio Telescope. IFLScience. Published July 4, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Forecasting: Radars Far Superior to Predecessors, but Location and Availability Questions Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seegmiller Renner A. Empathy Development Through Role Modeling: A Qualitative Study of Instructor Experiences. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. On Tulsa’s Long-Shot Olympic Pitch, Mayor and Others Say Never Mind. New York Times. July 4, 2013:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Medicine
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)0965-2299
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Complementary and Manual Therapy

Other styles