How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Christe KO. Obituary: Neil Bartlett (1932-2008). Nature. 2008;455(7210):182.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ward WR, Canup RM. Origin of the Moon’s orbital inclination from resonant disk interactions. Nature. 2000;403(6771):741-743.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Szlufarska I, Nakano A, Vashishta P. A crossover in the mechanical response of nanocrystalline ceramics. Science. 2005;309(5736):911-914.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Xu L, Wei Y, Reboul J, et al. BTB proteins are substrate-specific adaptors in an SCF-like modular ubiquitin ligase containing CUL-3. Nature. 2003;425(6955):316-321.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Collins D. Magic in the Ancient Greek World. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Meersman R, Tari Z, eds. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2006: CoopIS, DOA, GADA, and ODBASE: OTM Confederated International Conferences, CoopIS, DOA, GADA, and ODBASE 2006, Montpellier, France, October 29 - November 3, 2006. Proceedings, Part I. Vol 4275. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Tamililakkiya V, Vani K. Feature Extraction from Lunar Images. In: Nagamalai D, Renault E, Dhanuskodi M, eds. Advances in Digital Image Processing and Information Technology: First International Conference on Digital Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, DPPR 2011, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, September 23-25, 2011. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2011:34-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Illegal Drugs In People’s Pee Are Altering River Ecosystems. IFLScience. Published August 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/illegal-drugs-peoples-pee-altering-river-ecosystems/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Education Authority To Charge Student Financial Aid Application Fees. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Yu G. Religious/Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Asian/Asian American Mental Health Professionals & Students and the Impact on Treatment. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S. Salvage Teams Begin to Raise Russian Sub. New York Times. October 8, 2001:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Medicine
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)0965-2299
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Complementary and Manual Therapy

Other styles