How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelder C. Communication: Positive energy. Nature. 2013;498(7454):293-295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoon S-J, Lee Y-W. An aligned stream of low-metallicity clusters in the halo of the Milky Way. Science. 2002;297(5581):578-581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo Y, Yang Y, Chen Z. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4332.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP, et al. Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science. 2004;304(5672):838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park S, Guille-Escuret G. Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Tamir DE, Rishe ND, Kandel A, eds. Fifty Years of Fuzzy Logic and Its Applications. Vol 326. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bott O, Hamm F. Cross-Linguistic Variation in the Processing of Aspect. In: Hemforth B, Mertins B, Fabricius-Hansen C, eds. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Meaning and Understanding across Languages. Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:83-109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Watch NASA’s “All About That Space” Parody Music Video. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Complete and Enforced Architecture Needed for FAA Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waldron KD. The Influence of Leadership Emotional Intelligence on Employee Engagement. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Muslim Lives in the City. New York Times. February 23, 2017:MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Medicine
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)0965-2299
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Complementary and Manual Therapy

Other styles