How to format your references using the BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Raymond J. Sexist attitudes: Most of us are biased. Nature. 2013;495:33–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Affolter M, Basler K. Cell biology. Cytonemes show their colors. Science. 2011;332:312–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lin Z, Owen AB, Altman RB. Genetics. Genomic research and human subject privacy. Science. 2004;305:183.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yamada K, Ji JJ, Yuan H, Miki T, Sato S, Horimoto N, et al. Protective role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in hypoxia-induced generalized seizure. Science. 2001;292:1543–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Héno R, Chandelier L. 3D Modeling of Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Jiang Q. Thermodynamics of Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kirk W, Shahzad N. Hyperconvex Metric Spaces. In: Shahzad N, editor. Fixed Point Theory in Distance Spaces. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 23–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Landmark Trial Finds Injection Every Other Month Treats HIV Patients. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Passenger Screening: Preliminary Observations on Progress Made and Challenges Remaining. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Daum MA. Busy Fingers, Wordless Thoughts: Entering the Knot of Compulsive Hair Twisting. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J, Lyons M, Hale M, Genzlinger N. The Mission: To Transcend Time and Space. New York Times. 2017;:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationBMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)2052-1847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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