How to format your references using the BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hedrick PW. Comment on “Parasite selection for immunogenetic optimality.” Science. 2004;303:957; author reply 957.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haga SB, Venter JC. Genetics. FDA races in wrong direction. Science. 2003;301:466.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Núñez L, Grosjean M, Cartajena I. Human occupations and climate change in the Puna de Atacama, Chile. Science. 2002;298:821–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kessler JD, Valentine DL, Redmond MC, Du M, Chan EW, Mendes SD, et al. A persistent oxygen anomaly reveals the fate of spilled methane in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Science. 2011;331:312–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kim H-G, Moreau N, Sikora T. MPEG-7 Audio and Beyond. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Galarza AIR. Introduction to Classical Geometries. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Angerer C, Nagel M, Brügge B, Gross T. Engaging Students in Distributed Software Engineering Courses. In: Kern E-M, Hegering H-G, Brügge B, editors. Managing Development and Application of Digital Technologies: Research Insights in the Munich Center for Digital Technology & Management (CDTM). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. This May Be The Most Accurate Map Of The World Ever Made. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/most-accurate-map-world-ever-made/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yang Z. Primary Isotope Effect on Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects and Hammett Correlations in Hydride Transfer Reactions. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gurley G. Where Everybody Knows Your Name and Accepts Your Politics. New York Times. 2016;:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationBMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)2052-1847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rehabilitation
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles