How to format your references using the BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Recupero DR. Computer science. Toward a green Internet. Science. 2013;339:1533–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dorfman KE, Mukamel S. Indistinguishability and correlations of photons generated by quantum emitters undergoing spectral diffusion. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3996.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Castelnovo C, Moessner R, Sondhi SL. Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature. 2008;451:42–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gregg PM, Lin J, Behn MD, Montési LGJ. Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults. Nature. 2007;448:183–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wright JR, Cooper JE. Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Schaltegger S, Zvezdov D, Alvarez Etxeberria I, Csutora M, Günther E, editors. Corporate Carbon and Climate Accounting. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Saakov VS, Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG. The Range of DSHO Application in Experiments with Pigments of Plants and Animals. In: Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG, editors. Derivative Spectrophotometry and PAM-Fluorescence in Comparative Biochemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 479–605.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Stress Can Alter Your Genome. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: Costs for Hubble Servicing Mission and Implementation of Safety Recommendations Not Yet Definitive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Masumdar S. Vibration-based electromagnetic energy harvester for low-frequency road traffic. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lipton E, Buettner R. U.S. Form Shows How Giuliani, Possible Cabinet Pick, Made His Fortune. New York Times. 2016;:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationBMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)2052-1847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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