How to format your references using the BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schönenberger C. Physics. Two indistinguishable electrons interfere in an electronic device. Science. 2013;339:1041–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhang Z, Wang J. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6870.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catrysse PB, Liu V, Fan S. Complete power concentration into a single waveguide in large-scale waveguide array lenses. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6635.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kaeberlein M, Powers RW 3rd, Steffen KK, Westman EA, Hu D, Dang N, et al. Regulation of yeast replicative life span by TOR and Sch9 in response to nutrients. Science. 2005;310:1193–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. CCPS. Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Möller S, Raake A, editors. Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Srivastava A, Klassen EP. Functional Data and Elastic Registration. In: Klassen EP, editor. Functional and Shape Data Analysis. New York, NY: Springer; 2016. p. 73–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Origins Of Antibiotics May Not Be What We Thought. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/origins-antibiotics-may-not-be-what-we-thought/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Veru PT. The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Valerian S. For a Brown, the Comeback Trail Leads Home. New York Times. 2013;:B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationBMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)2052-1847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rehabilitation
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles