How to format your references using the Comparative Population Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Population Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edgerton, David 2008: The Charge of Technology. In: Nature 455,7216: 1030–1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Praetorius, Summer K.; Mix, Alan C. 2014: Paleoclimate. Synchronization of North Pacific and Greenland Climates Preceded Abrupt Deglacial Warming. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 345,6195: 444–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mietto, Paolo; Avanzini, Marco; Rolandi, Giuseppe 2003: Palaeontology: Human Footprints in Pleistocene Volcanic Ash. In: Nature 422,6928: 133.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Davis, Brandi N. et al. 2008: SMAD Proteins Control DROSHA-Mediated MicroRNA Maturation. In: Nature 454,7200: 56–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, Guy 2005: Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wang, Xiaoyun; Sako, Kazue (Eds.) 2012: Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2012: 18th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Beijing, China, December 2-6, 2012. Proceedings. Volume 7658. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Atweh, Bill 2011: Quality and Equity in Mathematics Education as Ethical Issues. In: Atweh, Bill et al. (Eds.): Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands: 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Population Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen 2017: Two Malaria Vaccines Achieve Success In Early Trials. IFLScience. IFLScience. [, 30.10.2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012: Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Implement Key Management Practices. GAO-12-915. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lefebvre, Karlea 2017: Racial Prejudice, Individualism, and Political Identity: Understanding the Forty-Year Trend of Anti-Welfare Spending Preferences. Doctoral Dissertation. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben 2016: Unshaken by Her Low Ranking, Wozniacki Easily Defeats Keys. In: New York Times 5.9.2016: D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edgerton 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Edgerton 2008; Praetorius/Mix 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Praetorius/Mix 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Davis et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Population Studies
ISSN (print)1869-8980
ISSN (online)1869-8999

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