How to format your references using the Comparative Population Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Population Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, Christopher J. 2009: Microbiology. Getting in Touch with Your Friends. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 324,5931: 1150–1151.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hart, D.M.; Branscomb, L.M. 2000: Research, Innovation and Politics. In: Nature 407,6804: 561–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sansom, Robert S.; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Purnell, Mark A. 2010: Non-Random Decay of Chordate Characters Causes Bias in Fossil Interpretation. In: Nature 463,7282: 797–800.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meier, Focko et al. 2008: Revealing Magnetic Interactions from Single-Atom Magnetization Curves. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 320,5872: 82–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, Bill 2005: Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Oyarzun, David et al. (Eds.) 2012: Interactive Storytelling: 5th International Conference, ICIDS 2012, San Sebastián, Spain, November 12-15, 2012. Proceedings. Volume 7648. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Klutke, Georgia-Ann 2016: Degradation: Data Analysis and Analytical Modeling. In: Klutke, Georgia-Ann (Ed.): Reliability and Life-Cycle Analysis of Deteriorating Systems, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 79–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Population Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh 2016: Harmless Snake Found To Physically Alter Its Eyes To Mimic Deadly Viper. IFLScience. IFLScience. [, 30.10.2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995: General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. AA-95-33(4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, Cathy 2012: Directed Blogging with Community College ESL Students: Its Effects on Awareness of Language Acquisition Processes. Doctoral Dissertation. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chow, Andrew R.; Paulson, Michael 2017: ‘The Glass Menagerie’ To Close Early. In: New York Times 9.5.2017: C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hart/Branscomb 2000; Marx 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hart/Branscomb 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Meier et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Population Studies
ISSN (print)1869-8980
ISSN (online)1869-8999

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