How to format your references using the Comparative Population Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Population Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhuang, Xiaowei 2004: Molecular Biology. Unraveling DNA Condensation with Optical Tweezers. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 305,5681: 188–190.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, Eric M.; Hartwig, John F. 2012: Catalytic Functionalization of Unactivated Primary C-H Bonds Directed by an Alcohol. In: Nature 483,7387: 70–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’D Alexander, C.M.; Boss, A.P.; Carlson, R.W. 2001: The Early Evolution of the Inner Solar System: A Meteoritic Perspective. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 293,5527: 64–68.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O’Dowd, Colin D. et al. 2004: Biogenically Driven Organic Contribution to Marine Aerosol. In: Nature 431,7009: 676–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lincoln, Nadina B. et al. 2011: Psychological Management of Stroke. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Licata, Ignazio 2014: Quantum Potential: Physics, Geometry and Algebra. SpringerBriefs in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Postorino, Valentina; Mazzone, Luigi 2016: Feeding and Eating Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder. In: Mazzone, Luigi; Vitiello, Benedetto (Eds.): Psychiatric Symptoms and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Population Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen 2017: Men And Women Have The Same Size Amygdalae. IFLScience. IFLScience. [, 30.10.2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998: Aerospace Testing: Promise of Closer NASA/DOD Cooperation Remains Largely Unfulfilled. NSIAD-98-52. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schloesser, Kathleen 2010: Improving Services for Persons with Developmental Disabilities through the Utilization of Person-Centered Thinking: A Grant-Writing Project. Doctoral Dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary 2012: I.O.C. Opens Inquiry Into Resale Of Tickets. In: New York Times 18.6.2012: D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhuang 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons/Hartwig 2012; Zhuang 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons/Hartwig 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Dowd et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Population Studies
ISSN (print)1869-8980
ISSN (online)1869-8999

Other styles