How to format your references using the Comparative Population Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Population Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, Brian 2015: Batteries. In: Nature 526,7575: S89.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J. 2006: Exposure to Scientific Theories Affects Women’s Math Performance. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 314,5798: 435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lai, Yen-Ting; Cascio, Duilio; Yeates, Todd O. 2012: Structure of a 16-Nm Cage Designed by Using Protein Oligomers. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 336,6085: 1129.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Wenhui et al. 2008: Negative Regulation of the Deacetylase SIRT1 by DBC1. In: Nature 451,7178: 587–590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunt, Richard R.; Cunic, John D. 2000: Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schürr, Andy; Nagl, Manfred; Zündorf, Albert (Eds.) 2008: Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: Third International Symposium, AGTIVE 2007, Kassel, Germany, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Volume 5088. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesti, Majeed-Ul-Hassan et al. 2013: Role of Bio-Fertilizers in Crop Improvement. In: Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Ozturk, Munir (Eds.): Crop Improvement: New Approaches and Modern Techniques. Boston, MA: Springer US: 189–208.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Population Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy 2016: Tax On Meat And Dairy Could Cut Carbon Emissions And Save Millions Of Lives. IFLScience. IFLScience. [, 30.10.2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016: Smartphone Data: Information and Issues Regarding Surreptitious Tracking Apps That Can Facilitate Stalking. GAO-16-317. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn, Travis N. 2014: A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship. Doctoral Dissertation. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James 2016: European Leaders Debate Proposals for Closer Military Ties. In: New York Times 16.9.2016: A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dar-Nimrod/Heine 2006; Owens 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dar-Nimrod/Heine 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Population Studies
ISSN (print)1869-8980
ISSN (online)1869-8999

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