How to format your references using the Comparative Population Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Population Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardie, D. Grahame 2010: Transcription. Targeting the Core of Transcription. In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 329,5996: 1158–1159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becskei, A.; Serrano, L. 2000: Engineering Stability in Gene Networks by Autoregulation. In: Nature 405,6786: 590–593.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sokolov, Stanislav; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A. 2007: Gating Pore Current in an Inherited Ion Channelopathy. In: Nature 446,7131: 76–78.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bai, Yongfei et al. 2004: Ecosystem Stability and Compensatory Effects in the Inner Mongolia Grassland. In: Nature 431,7005: 181–184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fränzle, Stefan; Markert, Bernd; Wünschmann, Simone 2012: Introduction to Environmental Engineering. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Borgefors, Gunilla; Strand, Robin (Eds.) 2013: Mathematical Morphology and Its Applications to Signal and Image Processing: 11th International Symposium, ISMM 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, May 27-29, 2013. Proceedings. Volume 7883. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan, Ming-Long et al. 2016: Challenges and Designs of TFET for Digital Applications. In: Zhang, Lining; Chan, Mansun (Eds.): Tunneling Field Effect Transistor Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 89–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Population Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan 2017: Could Life Survive In The TRAPPIST-1 System? IFLScience. IFLScience. [, 30.10.2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2011: DOD Education Benefits: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program. GAO-11-389T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trump, Rebecca K. 2010: Self -Brand Overlap and Dissociation. Doctoral Dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy, Susan 2014: Who’s That (Cool) Girl? In: New York Times 27.11.2014: E11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardie 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Becskei/Serrano 2000; Hardie 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Becskei/Serrano 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Bai et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Population Studies
ISSN (print)1869-8980
ISSN (online)1869-8999

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