How to format your references using the Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bradford P. Energy policy: The nuclear landscape. Nature. 2012;483(7388):151-152.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ainslie G, Monterosso J. Behavior. A marketplace in the brain? Science. 2004;306(5695):421-423.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Duderstadt KE, Chuang K, Berger JM. DNA stretching by bacterial initiators promotes replication origin opening. Nature. 2011;478(7368):209-213.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Asher RJ, Meng J, Wible JR, et al. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science. 2005;307(5712):1091-1094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hartley J. Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Beckmann A, Dimitracopoulos C, Löwe B, eds. Logic and Theory of Algorithms: 4th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, Athens, Greece, June 15-20, 2008 Proceedings. Vol 5028. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Koh YS, Pears R. HI-Tree: Mining High Influence Patterns Using External and Internal Utility Values. In: Madria S, Hara T, eds. Big Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery: 17th International Conference, DaWaK 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:43-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. 28 Things Dogs Should Never Eat. IFLScience. Published October 25, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/28-things-dogs-should-never-eat/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G). U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pan C-M. Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocycles as Potential Antitumor Agents. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shear MD. Trump Halted Chemical Attack, Officials Say. New York Times. June 29, 2017:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedics
AbbreviationOrthopedics
ISSN (print)0147-7447
ISSN (online)1938-2367
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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