How to format your references using the Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl R. A clash of two cultures. Nature. 2002;419(6910):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheung AY, Wu H M. Plant biology. Pollen tube guidance--right on target. Science. 2001;293(5534):1441-1442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao BS, Meijer G, Schöllkopf W. Quantum reflection of He2 several nanometers above a grating surface. Science. 2011;331(6019):892-894.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pennycook TJ, Jones L, Pettersson H, et al. Atomic scale dynamics of a solid state chemical reaction directly determined by annular dark-field electron microscopy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Oden JT. An Introduction to Mathematical Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Ismail SI, Sulaiman N, Adnan R, eds. Proceedings of the 2nd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2015 (ICoSSEET 2015). 1st ed. 2015. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Potiron K, El Fallah Seghrouchni A, Taillibert P. Fault Tolerance for MAS Specific Faults. In: El Fallah Seghrouchni A, Taillibert P, eds. From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer; 2013:37-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedics.

Blog post
Davis J. Fossils From Some Of The Earliest Four-Legged Animals Found In Scotland. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Centralized Direction Needed for Calibration Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler TJ. Efficient Construction of Accurate Multiple Alignments and Large-Scale Phylogenies. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi S. Vanishing Acts. New York Times. November 10, 2013:BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedics
ISSN (print)0147-7447
ISSN (online)1938-2367
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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