How to format your references using the Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harvey RP. Planetary science. Carbonates and Martian climate. Science. 2010;329(5990):400-401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegerl GC, Bindoff NL. Ocean science. Warming the world’s oceans. Science. 2005;309(5732):254-255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman MV, Skrovanek SS, Kruglyak L. Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans. Science. 2010;330(6002):372-376.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kumar R, Chaudhary K, Singla D, Gautam A, Raghava GPS. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huddleston R. Android® Fully Loaded. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Berlot G, Pozzato G, eds. Hematologic Problems in the Critically Ill. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Cañada A, Villegas S. Systems of Equations. In: Villegas S, ed. A Variational Approach to Lyapunov Type Inequalities: From ODEs to PDEs. SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing; 2015:95-118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedics.

Blog post
Luntz S. Amazing Photographs & Video Of Snake Devouring Crocodile. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commuter Rail: Information and Guidance Could Help Facilitate Commuter and Freight Rail Access Negotiations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel CC. Female Leaders’ 360-Degree Self -Perception Accuracy for Leadership Competencies and Skills. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erdbrink T. As Toll Rises, Iran Says ISIS Recruited Attackers From Within Country. New York Times. June 8, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedics
ISSN (print)0147-7447
ISSN (online)1938-2367
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles