How to format your references using the Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Blow N. Functional Neuroscience: How to get ahead in imaging. Nature. 2009;458(7240):925-928.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Emini EA, Koff WC. AIDS/HIV. Developing an AIDS vaccine: need, uncertainty, hope. Science. 2004;304(5679):1913-1914.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bhowmick NA, Neilson EG, Moses HL. Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression. Nature. 2004;432(7015):332-337.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Essers MAG, de Vries-Smits LMM, Barker N, Polderman PE, Burgering BMT, Korswagen HC. Functional interaction between beta-catenin and FOXO in oxidative stress signaling. Science. 2005;308(5725):1181-1184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Eisner H. Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Ahlswede R. Hiding Data - Selected Topics: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 3. Vol 12. (Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, Deppe C, Tamm U, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Turner B. Specialized Agencies of the UN. In: Turner B, ed. The Statesman’s Yearbook: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World 2013. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2012:13-24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedics.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Spots “Pearl” Storm On Jupiter. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/nasa-juno-spacecraft-spots-pearl-storm-on-jupiter/. Published December 15, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Tax Administration: Status of Tax Systems Modernization, Tax Delinquencies, and the Tax Gap. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pahuja S. Bandwidth feedback effects on retained movements in young and old adults. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Donadio R. Russian Artist to Seek Asylum in France. New York Times. January 17, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedics
AbbreviationOrthopedics
ISSN (print)0147-7447
ISSN (online)1938-2367
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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