How to format your references using the Radiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiography (RADI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaim W. Chemistry. Odd electron on nitrogen: a metal-stabilized aminyl radical. Science 2005;307(5707):216–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richter JD., Theurkauf WE. Development. The message is in the translation. Science 2001;293(5527):60–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu M., Yu X., Ahlberg PE. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature 2001;410(6824):81–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miller C., Thomsen LE., Gaggero C., Mosseri R., Ingmer H., Cohen SN. SOS response induction by beta-lactams and bacterial defense against antibiotic lethality. Science 2004;305(5690):1629–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH., Drew LJ. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Raghukumar C. Biology of Marine Fungi, vol. 53, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Zanzi A., Trombetta A. Discovering non-constant Conditional Functional Dependencies with Built-in Predicates. In: Decker H, Lhotská L, Link S, Spies M, and Wagner RR, editors. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 25th International Conference, DEXA 2014, Munich, Germany, September 1-4, 2014. Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiography.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happens When Molten Aluminum Is Poured Into A Lava Lamp? IFLScience. Available from: [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vernold EL. Special education teacher resiliency: What keeps teachers in the field?. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Calvert MF. A Hush Falls Where Rockets Once Roared. New York Times 2013:BU8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiography
AbbreviationRadiography (Lond.)
ISSN (print)1078-8174
ISSN (online)1532-2831
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles