How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Williams E. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies. Nature. 2011;479:354–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Martin P, Parkhurst SM. Development. May the force be with you. Science. 2003;300:63–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Walkden G, Parker J, Kelley S. A late Triassic impact ejecta layer in southwestern Britain. Science. 2002;298:2185–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang Q, Stelzer AC, Fisher CK, Al-Hashimi HM. Visualizing spatially correlated dynamics that directs RNA conformational transitions. Nature. 2007;450:1263–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Saunders A, Allen L. Credit Risk Management in and Out of the Financial Crisis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Nibanupudi HK, Shaw R, editors. Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nieuwstadt FTM. The atmospheric boundary layer. In: Armenio V, Sarkar S, editors. Environmental Stratified Flows. Vienna: Springer; 2005. p. 179–232.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Researchers Develop Highly Effective Vaccine To Diarrhea Causing Bacterium. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Energy Research and Development Administration’s Accounting System for Accounts Receivable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jun. Report No.: FGMSD-77-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wheat BR. Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. Nine Million Desserts, for Gabriel, Michael, Alessandra and More. New York Times. 2017 Feb 12;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010)
ISSN (print)1869-3474
ISSN (online)1869-3482
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles