How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Becchetti FD. Nuclear fusion. Evidence for nuclear reactions in imploding bubbles. Science. 2002;295:1850.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhang K-Q, Liu XY. In situ observation of colloidal monolayer nucleation driven by an alternating electric field. Nature. 2004;429:739–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Furman JL, Murray F, Stern S. More for the research dollar. Nature. 2010;468:757–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. van den Hurk J, Havel V, Linn E, Waser R, Valov I. Ag/GeSx/Pt-based complementary resistive switches for hybrid CMOS/nanoelectronic logic and memory architectures. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rowlinson M. A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Chong N-Y, Cho Y-J, editors. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 12th International Symposium. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Groenendijk L, Sturm J. Curing society by better education: Wilhelm Stekel on parental influences in the causation and prevention of compulsion neuroses. In: Groenendijk L, Sturm J, Roazen P, editors. The Self-Marginalization of Wilhelm Stekel: Freudian Circles Inside and Out. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Ecotourism Could Be Changing Animals’ Behavior For The Worse [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Causes of Injury in Automobile Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 May. Report No.: PEMD-95-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kutash M. The Relationship Between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and Patient Outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Appelbaum B, Kelly K. Trump Is Said to Pick 2 To Serve on Fed Board. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010)
ISSN (print)1869-3474
ISSN (online)1869-3482
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles