How to format your references using the Collegian citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Collegian. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zwane, A. P. (2012). Economics. Implications of scarcity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 617–618.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang, S., & Guo, A. (2001). Choice behavior of Drosophila facing contradictory visual cues. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5546), 1543–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, J., Park, J., & Choi, C. (2014). Identification of phenotype deterministic genes using systemic analysis of transcriptional response. Scientific Reports, 4, 4413.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Temple, L. K., McLeod, R. S., Gallinger, S., & Wright, J. G. (2001). Essays on science and society. Defining disease in the genomics era. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5531), 807–808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vassiliou, P.-C. G. (2013). Discrete-time Asset Pricing Models in Applied Stochastic Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shackley, M. S. (Ed.). (2011). X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) in Geoarchaeology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tang, H.-G., & Peng, T.-Y. (2013). Auditor Industry Specialization, Analysts Following and Financing Constrains. In E. Qi, J. Shen, & R. Dou (Eds.), The 19th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management: Engineering Economics Management (pp. 35–44). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Collegian.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 4). Watch The Very Dangerous Ordeal Of A Sloth Pooping. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Procurement: Approach to Sharing Risk Under Certain Research and Development Contracts Is Starting to Change (T-NSIAD-92-12). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steffan, A. L. (2010). An examination of the correlation between ninth grade mathematics grades and student performance on the mathematics portion of the California high school exit examination [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, April 27). Boone. New York Times, C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zwane, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Tang & Guo, 2001; Zwane, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tang & Guo, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Temple et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCollegian
ISSN (print)1322-7696
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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