How to format your references using the Collegian citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Collegian. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wain-Hobson, S. (2013). H5N1 viral-engineering dangers will not go away. Nature, 495(7442), 411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickner, W., & Schekman, R. (2005). Protein translocation across biological membranes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5753), 1452–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michel, P., Benz, W., & Richardson, D. C. (2003). Disruption of fragmented parent bodies as the origin of asteroid families. Nature, 421(6923), 608–611.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Duan, J., Shi, J., Ge, X., Dölken, L., Moy, W., He, D., Shi, S., Sanders, A. R., Ross, J., & Gejman, P. V. (2013). Genome-wide survey of interindividual differences of RNA stability in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Scientific Reports, 3, 1318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zito, R. (2011). Electrochemical Water Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abu-Rahma, M. H. (2013). Nanometer Variation-Tolerant SRAM: Circuits and Statistical Design for Yield (M. Anis, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buelga, S., Martínez-Ferrer, B., & Musitu, G. (2016). Family Relationships and Cyberbullying. In R. Navarro, S. Yubero, & E. Larrañaga (Eds.), Cyberbullying Across the Globe: Gender, Family, and Mental Health (pp. 99–114). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Collegian.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, April 28). What Is This Bizarre Sea Creature Netted In China? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Biotechnology Research Efforts (RCED-86-39BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamoun, A. (2010). Molecular characterization of a subset of KRAB-ZFPs [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006, May 28). With a Push, Schools Win On Budgets. New York Times, LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wain-Hobson, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wain-Hobson, 2013; Wickner & Schekman, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickner & Schekman, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Michel et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Duan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCollegian
ISSN (print)1322-7696
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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