How to format your references using the Collegian citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Collegian. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeFelipe, J. (2010). From the connectome to the synaptome: an epic love story. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6008), 1198–1201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irwing, P., & Lynn, R. (2006). Intelligence: is there a sex difference in IQ scores? Nature, 442(7098), E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Casanova-Sáez, R., Candela, H., & Micol, J. L. (2014). Combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection drive retention of RPL36a paralogs in Arabidopsis. Scientific Reports, 4, 4122.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saphire, E. O., Parren, P. W., Pantophlet, R., Zwick, M. B., Morris, G. M., Rudd, P. M., … Wilson, I. A. (2001). Crystal structure of a neutralizing human IGG against HIV-1: a template for vaccine design. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1155–1159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huddleston, R. (2010). Android® Fully Loaded. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Chesi, G. (2009). Homogeneous Polynomial Forms for Robustness Analysis of Uncertain Systems. (A. Garulli, A. Tesi, & A. Vicino, Eds.) (Vol. 390). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stefanoiu, D., & Ionescu, F. (2006). Fuzzy-Statistical Reasoning in Fault Diagnosis. In V. Palade, L. Jain, & C. D. Bocaniala (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Fault Diagnosis (pp. 125–177). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Collegian.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, March 17). Pastor Discovers Giant 706-Carat Diamond In Sierra Leone. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Survey of Transit Providers Serving Small Urban and Rural Areas (GAO-16-639SP, June 21, 2016), an E-supplement to GAO-16-638 (No. GAO-16-639SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fletcher, B. (2017). Tropes of Dis/Ableism as Flexible Stigma: Examining Brenda Connors’ 2008 Report as an Instance of Dis/Ableist Polemical Rhetoric (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008, August 25). Plane Crash in Central Asia Kills 68. New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeFelipe, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (DeFelipe, 2010; Irwing & Lynn, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irwing & Lynn, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Casanova-Sáez, Candela, & Micol, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Saphire et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCollegian
ISSN (print)1322-7696
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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