How to format your references using the Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson G. Human genetics. GTEx detects genetic effects. Science 2015;348:640-641.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finney LA, O’Halloran TV. Transition metal speciation in the cell: insights from the chemistry of metal ion receptors. Science 2003;300:931-936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb D, Gomberg J, Bodin P. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses. Nature 2000;408:570-574.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Achermann M, Petruska MA, Kos S, Smith DL, Koleske DD, Klimov VI. Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well. Nature 2004;429:642-646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benitez M, Davidson J, Flaxman L. Small Schools, Big Ideas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Pelton J. Digital Defense: A Cybersecurity Primer. 1st ed. 2015. (Singh IB, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XX, 209 p. 42 illus., 36 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Bajd T, Mihelj M, Munih M. Geometric Robot Model. In: Mihelj M, Munih M, eds. Introduction to Robotics. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013:57-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses.

Blog post
Fang J. New 4D Ultrasound Scans Reveal Effects of Smoking on a Fetus. Available at Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griffin JC. Animal and soul: Animals in Native American mythologies and the individuation process. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lanchester J. Should We Trash Cash? New York Times. January 10, 2017:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInfluenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
AbbreviationInfluenza Other Respi. Viruses
ISSN (print)1750-2640
ISSN (online)1750-2659
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles