How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin, J. (2009). Social science. Friendship as a health factor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 454–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lendlein, A., & Langer, R. (2002). Biodegradable, elastic shape-memory polymers for potential biomedical applications. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1673–1676.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royden, L. H., Burchfiel, B. C., & van der Hilst, R. D. (2008). The geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1054–1058.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gaensler, B. M., Haverkorn, M., Staveley-Smith, L., Dickey, J. M., McClure-Griffiths, N. M., Dickel, J. R., & Wolleben, M. (2005). The magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud revealed through Faraday rotation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5715), 1610–1612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richter, D. H. (2017). Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Calamoneri, T., & Diaz, J. (Eds.). (2010). Algorithms and Complexity: 7th International Conference, CIAC 2010, Rome, Italy, May 26-28, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6078). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galitsky, B. A., Ilvovsky, D., Kuznetsov, S. O., & Strok, F. (2014). Finding Maximal Common Sub-parse Thickets for Multi-sentence Search. In M. Croitoru, S. Rudolph, S. Woltran, & C. Gonzales (Eds.), Graph Structures for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Third International Workshop, GKR 2013, Beijing, China, August 3, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 39–57). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 11). This Neat Animation Shows What 50 Years Of Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes Looks Like. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Federal Communications Commission’s International Telecommunications Activities (No. CED-82-77). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adelman, S. W. (2009). Early childhood nutritional responses to targeted food aid and social network disruptions in Ugandan internally displaced person’s camps (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M’kay, I. P. (1936, September 5). REDEFINING POLITICAL TERMS; Need Seen for New Outlook on the Tariff and Isolation. New York Times, p. social news books14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Couzin 2009; Lendlein and Langer 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lendlein and Langer 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gaensler et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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