How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benson, O. (2011). Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents. Nature, 480(7376), 193–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, J., & DeBerardinis, R. J. (2013). Cancer. Silencing a metabolic oncogene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 558–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, K., Cao, P., & Heath, J. R. (2010). Graphene visualizes the first water adlayers on mica at ambient conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5996), 1188–1191.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kudo, K., Iba, K., Takasuga, M., Kitahama, Y., Matsumura, J.-I., Danura, M., et al. (2013). Emergence of superconductivity at 45 K by lanthanum and phosphorus co-doping of CaFe₂As₂. Scientific reports, 3, 1478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B. R. (2009). Fundraising Law Made Easy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gleick, P. H. (Ed.). (2011). The World’s Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.
A chapter in an edited book
Lavatelli, F., Palladini, G., & Merlini, G. (2010). Pathogenesis of Systemic Amyloidoses. In M. A. Gertz & S. V. Rajkumar (Eds.), Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 49–64). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, April 30). New Gloves Could Let You Feel In Virtual Reality. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful (No. CED-80-87A). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, S. A. (2014). Dispersed Social Work: Understanding Social Presence and Organizational Identification Through the Use of New Communication Technologies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2017, March 31). One-Celled Hunter With Impressive Weapon. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Benson 2011; Kim and DeBerardinis 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and DeBerardinis 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kudo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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