How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carucci, D. (2004). Know thine enemy. Nature, 430(7002), 944–945.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, M. H., & vom Saal, F. S. (2000). Maternal age and traits in offspring. Nature, 407(6803), 469–470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsaesser, H., Sauer, K., & Brooks, D. G. (2009). IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1569–1572.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Young, J., Walker, S. M., Bomphrey, R. J., Taylor, G. K., & Thomas, A. L. R. (2009). Details of insect wing design and deformation enhance aerodynamic function and flight efficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5947), 1549–1552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maier, H. (2015). Chemiker im „Dritten Reich“. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Teixeira, P. N., Johnstone, D. B., Rosa, M. J., & Vossensteyn, H. (Eds.). (2006). Cost-Sharing and Accessibility in Higher Education: A Fairer Deal? (Vol. 14). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Manoury, E., & Poli, R. (2011). Phosphine-Containing Planar Chiral Ferrocenes: Synthesis, Coordination Chemistry and Applications to Asymmetric Catalysis. In M. Peruzzini & L. Gonsalvi (Eds.), Phosphorus Compounds: Advanced Tools in Catalysis and Material Sciences (pp. 121–149). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 18). Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Discretionary Grants: Further Tightening of Education’s Procedures for Making Awards Could Improve Transparency and Accountability (No. GAO-06-268). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahid, R. (2012). Quality of life of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, October 5). Cities in Debt Turn to States, Adding Strain. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carucci 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Carucci 2004; Wang and vom Saal 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and vom Saal 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Young et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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