How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, K. (2014). Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land. Scientific reports, 4, 4637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reynolds, J. D., & Freckleton, R. P. (2005). Ecology. Population dynamics: growing to extremes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5734), 567–568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Canfield, D. E., Poulton, S. W., & Narbonne, G. M. (2007). Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5808), 92–95.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maier, E., Zhang, X., Abelmann, A., Gersonde, R., Mulitza, S., Werner, M., et al. (2018). North Pacific freshwater events linked to changes in glacial ocean circulation. Nature, 559(7713), 241–245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I. (2013). Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Papathanassis, A., Breitner, M. H., Schoen, C., & Guhr, N. (Eds.). (2012). Cruise Management: Information and Decision Support Systems. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.
A chapter in an edited book
Bellucci, R., & Alyea, E. P. (2013). Harnessing Allogeneic Immunity for Anti-myeloma Response. In N. C. Munshi & K. C. Anderson (Eds.), Advances in Biology and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma: Volume 2: Translational and Clinical Research (pp. 111–129). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, December 5). Blending Conventional And Concentrated Solar Captures Light Under Cloudy Skies. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). National Airspace System: Regional Airport Planning Could Help Address Congestion If Plans Were Integrated with FAA and Airport Decision Making (No. GAO-10-120). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gardner, R. D. (2010). A time course analysis of stem cell activity following brain injury in food-storing black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harwood, J. (2016, October 7). Republicans are battling themselves. New York Times, p. A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Reynolds and Freckleton 2005; Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reynolds and Freckleton 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Maier et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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