How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dangl, J. L. (2007). Plant science. Nibbling at the plant cell nucleus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1088–1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Howard, J. A. K., & Probert, M. R. (2014). Cutting-edge techniques used for the structural investigation of single crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6175), 1098–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seto, K. C., Kaufmann, R. K., & Woodcock, C. E. (2000). Landsat reveals China’s farmland reserves, but they’re vanishing fast. Nature, 406(6792), 121.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Paul, A., Bartels, R. A., Tobey, R., Green, H., Weiman, S., Christov, I. P., et al. (2003). Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light. Nature, 421(6918), 51–54.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perrin, V. (2013). MRI Techniques. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
González Hidalgo, M., Mir Torres, A., & Varona Gómez, J. (Eds.). (2013). Deformation Models: Tracking, Animation and Applications (Vol. 7). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, W. B., & Daubert, R. (2014). Hammertoes and MTP Instability in the Athlete. In T. M. Philbin (Ed.), Sports Injuries of the Foot: Evolving Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 49–59). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 7). Swine Flu Doesn’t Just Pass From Pigs To People – It Goes Both Ways. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Noteworthy Improvements in Readiness But Vulnerabilities Remain (No. T-AIMD-00-37). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaisson, C. (2014). An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. (2017, August 8). The Graduates of Walmart Academy. New York Times, p. A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dangl 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dangl 2007; Howard and Probert 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Howard and Probert 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Paul et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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