How to format your references using the Cognitive Therapy and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Therapy and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller, R. (2012). Developmental biology. Physical biology returns to morphogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 201–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, E., & Rapoport, T. A. (2011). Preserving the membrane barrier for small molecules during bacterial protein translocation. Nature, 473(7346), 239–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hedde, P. N., Stakic, M., & Gratton, E. (2014). Rapid measurement of molecular transport and interaction inside living cells using single plane illumination. Scientific reports, 4, 7048.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gao, D., Nolan, D. J., Mellick, A. S., Bambino, K., McDonnell, K., & Mittal, V. (2008). Endothelial progenitor cells control the angiogenic switch in mouse lung metastasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5860), 195–198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burghardt, G., & Walls, B. (2011). Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lovat, T. (2015). Reconciling Islam, Christianity and Judaism: Islam’s Special Role in Restoring Convivencia. (R. Crotty, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ding, J., & Yang, B.-Y. (2013). Degree of Regularity for HFEv and HFEv-. In P. Gaborit (Ed.), Post-Quantum Cryptography: 5th International Workshop, PQCrypto 2013, Limoges, France, June 4-7, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 52–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 10). Vegetarians Cause Environmental Damage, But Meat Eaters Aren’t Off The Hook. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Federal Student Aid Formula: Cost-of-Living Adjustment Could Increase Aid to a Small Percentage of Students in High-Cost Areas but Could Also Further Complicate Aid Process (No. GAO-09-825). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roache, R. S. (2015). Missouri Public School Teachers’ Perception of Tenure (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, May 19). Sharapova’s Entry to Wimbledon: Qualify. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keller 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Keller 2012; Park and Rapoport 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Rapoport 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Therapy and Research
AbbreviationCognit. Ther. Res.
ISSN (print)0147-5916
ISSN (online)1573-2819
ScopeClinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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