How to format your references using the Cognitive Neurodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Neurodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marder TB (2006) Chemistry. Boron goes on the attack. Science 314:69–70
A journal article with 2 authors
Byers J, Dunn S (2012) Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection. Science 338:802–804
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller RA, Fisk MR, White WM (2000) Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot. Nature 405:673–676
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Valentine J, Zhang S, Zentgraf T, et al (2008) Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index. Nature 455:376–379

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meschede D (2017) Optics, Light, and Lasers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Doumpos M, Zopounidis C, Grigoroudis E (eds) (2016) Robustness Analysis in Decision Aiding, Optimization, and Analytics. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Jain S, Krishna S (2011) Can We Recognize an Innovation? Perspective from an Evolving Network Model. In: Meyer-Ortmanns H, Thurner S (eds) Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 145–172

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Neurodynamics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Mammals Took Over The World Remarkably Quickly After The Dinosaurs Bit The Dust. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Transportation Activities 1946-1975: Interview with Joseph P. Normile, Fred J. Shafer, and Thomas E. Sullivan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark DK (2009) Professional values: A study of education and experience in nursing students and nurses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2004) 36 Hours | Portsmouth, N.H. New York Times F5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marder 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Marder 2006; Byers and Dunn 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byers and Dunn 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Valentine et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Neurodynamics
AbbreviationCogn. Neurodyn.
ISSN (print)1871-4080
ISSN (online)1871-4099
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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