How to format your references using the Cognitive Neurodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Neurodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herrling P (2007) Patent sense. Nature 449:174–175
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld N, Pace NR (2013) Retrospective. Carl R. Woese (1928-2012). Science 339:661
A journal article with 3 authors
Max CE, Canalizo G, de Vries WH (2007) Locating the two black holes in NGC 6240. Science 316:1877–1880
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Harris RA, Hempel de Ibarra N, Graham P, Collett TS (2005) Ant navigation: priming of visual route memories. Nature 438:302

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leroy L (2016) Eyestrain Reduction in Stereoscopy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Borcsa M, Rober P (eds) (2016) Research Perspectives in Couple Therapy: Discursive Qualitative Methods, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Putterman AM (2012) Cheek–Midface Lift. In: Hartstein ME, Wulc AE, Holck DEE (eds) Midfacial Rejuvenation. Springer, New York, NY, pp 49–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Neurodynamics.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Top Predators Limit Their Own Numbers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) NASA Procurement: Contract Management Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deolikar PP (2017) Lecture Video Search Engine Using Hadoop MapReduce. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) Half a Million Viewers For ‘Twin Peaks’ Return. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herrling 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Herrling 2007; Goldenfeld and Pace 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenfeld and Pace 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Neurodynamics
AbbreviationCogn. Neurodyn.
ISSN (print)1871-4080
ISSN (online)1871-4099
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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