How to format your references using the Cognitive Neurodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Neurodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burrows A (2000) Supernova explosions in the Universe. Nature 403:727–733
A journal article with 2 authors
Zahn M, von Storch H (2010) Decreased frequency of North Atlantic polar lows associated with future climate warming. Nature 467:309–312
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman HA, Koch WJ, Lefkowitz RJ (2002) Seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors and heart function. Nature 415:206–212
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hofstetter L, Csonka S, Nygård J, Schönenberger C (2009) Cooper pair splitter realized in a two-quantum-dot Y-junction. Nature 461:960–963

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danby FW (2014) Acne. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Divangahi M (ed) (2013) The New Paradigm of Immunity to Tuberculosis. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Larionova M, Shelepov A (2015) Is BRICS Institutionalization Enhancing Its Effectiveness? In: Rewizorski M (ed) The European Union and the BRICS: Complex Relations in the Era of Global Governance. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Neurodynamics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Glassfrogs Hatch Early When They’re Abandoned. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Effectiveness and Management of Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program at Three Locations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trichon MC (2010) Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Duerden J (2017) Qatar’s World Cup Résumé: Zero Games; 2022 Host. New York Times SP3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burrows 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Burrows 2000; Zahn and von Storch 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zahn and von Storch 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hofstetter et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Neurodynamics
AbbreviationCogn. Neurodyn.
ISSN (print)1871-4080
ISSN (online)1871-4099
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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