How to format your references using the Cognitive Neurodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Neurodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gomez N (2015) Climate science: Small glacier has big effect on sea-level rise. Nature 526:510–512
A journal article with 2 authors
Tabas I, Glass CK (2013) Anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic disease: challenges and opportunities. Science 339:166–172
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson JK, Peterson MR, Freeman RD (2003) Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex. Science 299:1070–1072
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Marlovits TC, Kubori T, Lara-Tejero M, et al (2006) Assembly of the inner rod determines needle length in the type III secretion injectisome. Nature 441:637–640

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez R, Qi F, Huang B (2016) Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Tripathi ON, Ravens U, Sanguinetti MC (eds) (2011) Heart Rate and Rhythm: Molecular Basis, Pharmacological Modulation and Clinical Implications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Machuca JA (2013) Challenges for Anthropological Research on Intangible Cultural Heritage. In: Arizpe L, Amescua C (eds) Anthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, pp 57–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Neurodynamics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Mysterious Bacterial Toxin Linked To Stillbirths. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Federal Research: Two Political Science Grants Awarded by the National Science Foundation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson MS (2017) Integrating Emergency Medical Services Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw N (2015) A Slippery New Rule for Gauging Fiscal Policy. New York Times BU7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gomez 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Tabas and Glass 2013; Gomez 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tabas and Glass 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Marlovits et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Neurodynamics
AbbreviationCogn. Neurodyn.
ISSN (print)1871-4080
ISSN (online)1871-4099
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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