How to format your references using the Cognitive Neurodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Neurodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts B (2004) A wake-up call. Nature 431:1041
A journal article with 2 authors
Petronczki M, Uhlmann F (2012) Cell biology. ESCRTing DNA at the cleavage site during cytokinesis. Science 336:166–167
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin I, Smith BE, Medley B (2014) Marine ice sheet collapse potentially under way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica. Science 344:735–738
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lummis SCR, Beene DL, Lee LW, et al (2005) Cis-trans isomerization at a proline opens the pore of a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Nature 438:248–252

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham C (2014) Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Tomkos I, Spyropoulou M, Ennser K, et al (eds) (2009) Towards Digital Optical Networks: COST Action 291 Final Report. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bhansali P, Roychowdhury J (2011) Injection Locking Analysis and Simulation of Weakly Coupled Oscillator Networks. In: Li P, Silveira LM, Feldmann P (eds) Simulation and Verification of Electronic and Biological Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 71–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Neurodynamics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Scientist Spotlight: Michael Collins. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Public Transit: Survey of Public Transit Agency Officials on Contracting Out Public Transit Operations and Other Services (GAO-13-824SP, September 2013), an E-supplement to GAO-13-782. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam G (2017) A Mixed Methods Study Examining Teacher Impressions of a Psychoeducational Program on Common Issues During Childhood. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Rashbaum WK (2017) Departing Correction Chief: ‘They Just Want to Hammer Somebody Forever.’ New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alberts 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Alberts 2004; Petronczki and Uhlmann 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petronczki and Uhlmann 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lummis et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Neurodynamics
AbbreviationCogn. Neurodyn.
ISSN (print)1871-4080
ISSN (online)1871-4099
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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