How to format your references using the Central Asian Survey citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Central Asian Survey. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kilpatrick, A. Marm. 2011. “Globalization, Land Use, and the Invasion of West Nile Virus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6054): 323–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, Michael T., and M. Flint Beal. 2006. “Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases.” Nature 443 (7113): 787–795.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, Jong H. Han, and M. Taher A. Saif. 2007. “Plastic Deformation Recovery in Freestanding Nanocrystalline Aluminum and Gold Thin Films.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5820): 1831–1834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Itoh, Hiroyasu, Akira Takahashi, Kengo Adachi, Hiroyuki Noji, Ryohei Yasuda, Masasuke Yoshida, and Kazuhiko Kinosita. 2004. “Mechanically Driven ATP Synthesis by F1-ATPase.” Nature 427 (6973): 465–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, Jack Y. B. 2005. Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Grossweiner, Leonard I. 2005. The Science of Phototherapy: An Introduction. Edited by James B. Grossweiner, B. H. Gerald Rogers, and Linda R. Jones. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, Weiyue, Changyou Zhan, and Huimin Hou. 2014. “Targeted Liposomes and Micelles as Carriers for Cancer Therapy.” In Nano-Oncologicals: New Targeting and Delivery Approaches, edited by Maria José Alonso and Marcos Garcia-Fuentes, 95–122. Advances in Delivery Science and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Central Asian Survey.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Entire Skeleton Of Fanged Dinosaur Seen By Bombarding It With Powerful X-Rays.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Federal Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Expand Their Potential Uses within the National Airspace System. GAO-08-511. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brooks, Betsy Moog. 2017. “Applying Andragogical Principles to Real-Time Embedded Parental Coaching When Helping Their Children with Hearing Loss to Talk.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Arrests In 2 Bombings.” New York Times, June 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kilpatrick 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kilpatrick 2011; Lin and Beal 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin and Beal 2006)
  • Three authors: (Rajagopalan, Han, and Saif 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Itoh et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCentral Asian Survey
AbbreviationCentr. Asian Surv.
ISSN (print)0263-4937
ISSN (online)1465-3354
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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