How to format your references using the International Journal of Primatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Primatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller, K. L. (2015). Cancer immunology and immunotherapy. Realizing the promise. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230), 54–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karels, T. J., & Boonstra, R. (2000). Concurrent density dependence and independence in populations of arctic ground squirrels. Nature, 408(6811), 460–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Tonder, G. J., Lyons, M. J., & Ejima, Y. (2002). Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden. Nature, 419(6905), 359–360.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lu, H., Wang, C.-A., Huang, Y., & Xie, H. (2014). Multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. Scientific reports, 4, 6823.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, S. R., & Cartwright, M. (2014). Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
White, M. A., & Murray, A. S. (Eds.). (2015). Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-being in Schools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bangerter, E. (2006). A Cryptographic Framework for the Controlled Release of Certified Data (Transcript of Discussion). In B. Christianson, B. Crispo, J. A. Malcolm, & M. Roe (Eds.), Security Protocols: 12th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, April 26-28, 2004. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 43–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Primatology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 29). How Re-Analysing The Data Of Scientific Research Can Change The Findings. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Educational Laboratory and Research and Development Center Programs Need To Be Strengthened (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moro, J. M. (2017). School Improvement Grants at Work: A Study of Urban, Public New England Schools (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, May 22). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, p. 1412.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mueller 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Karels and Boonstra 2000; Mueller 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karels and Boonstra 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Primatology
AbbreviationInt. J. Primatol.
ISSN (print)0164-0291
ISSN (online)1573-8604
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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