How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swarup A. Science careers. Analyzing scientific investments. Science. 2008;322(5905):1266-1267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz G, Lowe G. Neural coding of binary mixtures in a structurally related odorant pair. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santer BD, Wigley TML, Taylor KE. The reproducibility of observational estimates of surface and atmospheric temperature change. Science. 2011;334(6060):1232-1233.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miyashita M, Sasaki M, Hattori I, Sakai M, Tanino K. Total synthesis of norzoanthamine. Science. 2004;305(5683):495-499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer MD. Transportation Planning Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Ring J, Przybilla B, Ruzicka T, eds. Handbook of Atopic Eczema. Second Edition. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnold VI. Conditions for non-linear stability of stationary plane curvilinear flows of an ideal fluid. In: Givental AB, Khesin BA, Varchenko AN, Vassiliev VA, Viro OY, eds. Vladimir I. Arnold - Collected Works: Hydrodynamics, Bifurcation Theory, and Algebraic Geometry 1965-1972. Springer; 2014:19-23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrews R. Was An Erection-Causing Venomous Spider Really Found In A German Shipping Container? IFLScience. Published December 16, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Attention to Critical Issues Can Bring Success. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yahil RJ. The Role of Interleukin-19 in Interleukin-10 Production by Regulatory Macrophages. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; 2 Missing Russian Works Recovered. New York Times. August 5, 2006:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2451-9936

Other styles