How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A. Antihydrogen: through the looking glass. Nature. 2000;406(6796):556-558.
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti PG, Stillinger FH. Supercooled liquids and the glass transition. Nature. 2001;410(6825):259-267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu B, Parquette JR, RajanBabu TV. Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines. Science. 2009;326(5960):1662.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Farquhar J, Savarino J, Jackson TL, Thiemens MH. Evidence of atmospheric sulphur in the martian regolith from sulphur isotopes in meteorites. Nature. 2000;404(6773):50-52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson GP. Managing to the New Regulatory Reality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Cardone F. Deformed Spacetime: Geometrizing Interactions in Four and Five Dimensions. Vol 157. (Mignani R, ed.). Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Weeks TL, Pasupathi M. Autonomy, Identity, and Narrative Construction with Parents and Friends. In: McLean KC, Pasupathi M, eds. Narrative Development in Adolescence: Creating the Storied Self. Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development. Springer US; 2010:65-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. A Glider Might Search For Life In The Atmosphere Of Venus In 2025. IFLScience. Published January 12, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Minicomputers for Internal Revenue Service Tax Return Preparation. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratzlaff K. Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Naked Mole Rats Survive Without Oxygen. New York Times. April 20, 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2451-9936

Other styles