How to format your references using the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lynch C. Big data: How do your data grow? Nature. 2008;455(7209):28-29.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wallenfang MR, Seydoux G. Polarization of the anterior-posterior axis of C. elegans is a microtubule-directed process. Nature. 2000;408(6808):89-92.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Carporzen L, Gilder SA, Hart RJ. Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort meteorite crater and implications for craters on Mars. Nature. 2005;435(7039):198-201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Lodwig EM, Hosie AHF, Bourdès A, et al. Amino-acid cycling drives nitrogen fixation in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Nature. 2003;422(6933):722-726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bartlett K. The Experience of History. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Gasperini M, Maharana J, eds. String Theory and Fundamental Interactions: Gabriele Veneziano and Theoretical Physics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Vol 737. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Novak I, Praetorius J. Fundamentals of Bicarbonate Secretion in Epithelia. In: Hamilton KL, Devor DC, eds. Ion Channels and Transporters of Epithelia in Health and Disease. Springer; 2016:187-263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Good Luck G7 Leaders – We Won’t Be Off Fossil Fuels By 2100. IFLScience. Published June 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/good-luck-g7-leaders-we-won-t-be-fossil-fuels-2100/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Chemical Assessments: Low Productivity and New Interagency Review Process Limit the Usefulness and Credibility of EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Stout J. The Effects of Discipline with African-American Males at an Alternative Middle School: The Perceptions of Parents/Guardians, Teachers, Administrators, and Other Academic Stakeholders. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. In Latest Term, Majority Grows To More Than 5 of the Justices. New York Times. May 23, 2008:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
AbbreviationAm. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2451-9936
ScopeOphthalmology

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