How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gee, H. (2012). Developmental biology: a brainy background. Nature 483, 280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Polyak, K., and Marusyk, A. (2014). Cancer: Clonal cooperation. Nature 508, 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir, E., Kleinermanns, K., and de Vries, M. S. (2000). Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature 408, 949–951.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hooper, I. R., Tremain, B., Dockrey, J. A., and Hibbins, A. P. (2014). Massively sub-wavelength guiding of electromagnetic waves. Sci. Rep. 4, 7495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager, F. H., and Rosteck, H. (2006). Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Macintosh, A., Ellis, R., and Allen, T. eds. (2005). Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XII: Proceedings of AI-2004, the Twenty-fourth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bowes, G. (2011). “Chapter 5 Single-Cell C4 Photosynthesis in Aquatic Plants,” in C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration., eds. A. S. Raghavendra and R. F. Sage (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Penguins Can Only Taste Salty And Sour. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Federal-Aid Highways: Increased Reliance on Contractors Can Pose Oversight Challenges for Federal and State Officials. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escobedo, N. L. (2014). A continuing bonds grief support group for Latinas who have lost a child: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000). Allowing the Math-Challenged To Savor the Coffee at Tip Time. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gee, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gee, 2012; Polyak and Marusyk, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Polyak and Marusyk, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hooper et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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