How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telesco, C. (2006). Astronomy. Born with flare. Science 314, 605–606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gulev, S. K., and Latif, M. (2015). Ocean science: The origins of a climate oscillation. Nature 521, 428–430.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Cuaresma, J. C., and Sanderson, W. (2008). Economics. The demography of educational attainment and economic growth. Science 319, 1047–1048.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mondal, M., Kamlapure, A., Ganguli, S. C., Jesudasan, J., Bagwe, V., Benfatto, L., et al. (2013). Enhancement of the finite-frequency superfluid response in the pseudogap regime of strongly disordered superconducting films. Sci. Rep. 3, 1357.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fight, A. (2004). Understanding International Bank Risk. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Gruhn, V., and Oquendo, F. eds. (2006). Software Architecture: Third European Workshop, EWSA 2006, Nantes, France, September 4-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oh, S. H., and Lhm, J. T. (2007). “CDMA2000 1X & 1X EV-DO,” in Enhanced Radio Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Communication, eds. Y. Park and F. Adachi (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 151–190.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). What It’s Like To Live In A Town That Needs Its Own Polar Bear Jail. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Plans’ Coverage of Key Cyber Security Elements Varies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crockett, W. (2017). Student Transitions Into the Full-Time Virtual High School Setting.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). For Matz, and Mets, Another Comeback Has Proved Difficult to Fulfill. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Telesco, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Telesco, 2006; Gulev and Latif, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gulev and Latif, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mondal et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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