How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pielke, R., Jr (2007). Who has the ear of the president? Nature 450, 347–348.
A journal article with 2 authors
James, J. R., and Vale, R. D. (2012). Biophysical mechanism of T-cell receptor triggering in a reconstituted system. Nature 487, 64–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch, D., Marquet, P. A., and Gaston, K. J. (2005). Ecology. Untangling an entangled bank. Science 307, 684–686.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang, B., Zhou, Y. T., Chen, D., and Ma, X. L. (2013). Local decomposition induced by dislocation motions inside precipitates in an Al-alloy. Sci. Rep. 3, 1039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ford, I. (2013). Statistical Physics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
McGonagle, J. J. (2012). Proactive Intelligence: The Successful Executive’s Guide to Intelligence. , ed. C. M. Vella London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bottin, F., and Longo, M. (2011). “The History of Philosophy from Eclecticism to Pietism,” in Models of the History of Philosophy: Volume II: From Cartesian Age to Brucker International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées., eds. G. Santinello and G. Piaia (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 301–385.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Jellyfish Sting Under The Microscope In Slow Motion. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Federal Human Resources Data: OPM Should Improve the Availability and Reliability of Payroll Data to Support Accountability and Workforce Analytics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher, E. (2012). Suffering God.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016). Deftly Conjuring the High Magic of Art. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pielke, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Pielke, 2007; James and Vale, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (James and Vale, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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