How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz, E. (2015). Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions. Nature 517, 280–281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tseng, C.-K., and Cheng, S.-C. (2008). Both catalytic steps of nuclear pre-mRNA splicing are reversible. Science 320, 1782–1784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arp, G., Reimer, A., and Reitner, J. (2001). Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans. Science 292, 1701–1704.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, Q., Liu, Z. L., Ning, K., Wang, A., Zeng, X., and Xu, J. (2014). Genomic and transcriptome analyses reveal that MAPK- and phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathways mediate tolerance to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde for industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci. Rep. 4, 6556.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bannwarth, H. (2005). Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps, Compressors and Systems. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kennelly, S. J. ed. (2007). By-catch Reduction in the World’s Fisheries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wan, Z., He, Y., Hao, M., Yang, J., and Zhong, N. (2016). “An Automatic Neuron Tracing Method Based on Mean Shift and Minimum Spanning Tree,” in Brain Informatics and Health: International Conference, BIH 2016, Omaha, NE, USA, October 13-16, 2016 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. G. A. Ascoli, M. Hawrylycz, H. Ali, D. Khazanchi, and Y. Shi (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 34–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017). Ben Carson Has Some Curious Thoughts About The Human Brain. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Enhanced Its Canine Program, but Opportunities May Exist to Reduce Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burnley, T. (2012). Psychotherapist as Modern-Day Shaman.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Pastan, L. (2015). The Bridge. New York Times, MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Tseng and Cheng, 2008; Schulz, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tseng and Cheng, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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