How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wurtz, R. H. (2013). Retrospective. David H. Hubel (1926-2013). Science 342, 572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krabbenhoft, D. P., and Sunderland, E. M. (2013). Environmental science. Global change and mercury. Science 341, 1457–1458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaochar, S., Paek, A. L., and Weinert, T. (2010). Genetics. Replication error amplified. Science 329, 911–913.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Asmis, K. R., Pivonka, N. L., Santambrogio, G., Brümmer, M., Kaposta, C., Neumark, D. M., et al. (2003). Gas-phase infrared spectrum of the protonated water dimer. Science 299, 1375–1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa, V. F. (2005). Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schwartz, R. A. (2007). The New Nasdaq Marketplace. , eds. J. A. Byrne and A. Colaninno New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, P.-C. K., and Khatri, S. P. (2014). “ATPG for Cancer Therapy,” in Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks, ed. S. P. Khatri (New York, NY: Springer), 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). Luke And Leia Might Be Twins - But Thanks To Space Travel, They Wouldn’t Be The Same Age. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Information Technology: SSA Needs to Address Limitations in Management Controls and Human Capital Planning to Support Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua, P. (2009). Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S. F., and Moynihan, C. (2015). Well Before Scandals, Cosby’s Wife Faulted Media Treatment of Blacks. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wurtz, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Krabbenhoft and Sunderland, 2013; Wurtz, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krabbenhoft and Sunderland, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Asmis et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

Other styles