How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coleman, P. (2010). Physics. The lowdown on heavy fermions. Science 327, 969–970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Limardo, A. J., and Worden, A. Z. (2015). Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea. Nature 522, 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dillingham, M. S., Spies, M., and Kowalczykowski, S. C. (2003). RecBCD enzyme is a bipolar DNA helicase. Nature 423, 893–897.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alvarez, J. I., Dodelet-Devillers, A., Kebir, H., Ifergan, I., Fabre, P. J., Terouz, S., et al. (2011). The Hedgehog pathway promotes blood-brain barrier integrity and CNS immune quiescence. Science 334, 1727–1731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
De Vos, A. (2010). Reversible Computing. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Nickerson, B. ed. (2011). Sample Preparation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Challenges and Strategies for Sample Preparation and Extraction. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Khong, T. Y. (2015). “The Placenta and Umbilical Cord,” in Keeling’s Fetal and Neonatal Pathology, eds. T. Y. Khong and R. D. G. Malcomson (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 85–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Incredible Photos Show Uncontacted Amazonian Tribe Living Perilously Close To Illegal Miners. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972). Follow up Review of Automatic Data Processing Activities Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, T. R. (2010). Tailored charged particle beams from single-component plasmas.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013). One Talk Show That Will Never Book a Kardashian. New York Times, A25B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coleman, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Coleman, 2010; Limardo and Worden, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Limardo and Worden, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Alvarez et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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