How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cochrane, M. A. (2003). Fire science for rainforests. Nature 421, 913–919.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Opstal, E. J., and Bordenstein, S. R. (2015). MICROBIOME. Rethinking heritability of the microbiome. Science 349, 1172–1173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalab, P., Weis, K., and Heald, R. (2002). Visualization of a Ran-GTP gradient in interphase and mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. Science 295, 2452–2456.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hornstein, E., Mansfield, J. H., Yekta, S., Hu, J. K.-H., Harfe, B. D., McManus, M. T., et al. (2005). The microRNA miR-196 acts upstream of Hoxb8 and Shh in limb development. Nature 438, 671–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horrocks, G. (2010). Greek. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Galtung, J. (2013). Johan Galtung: Pioneer of Peace Research. , ed. D. Fischer Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Diakite, I., and Chen-Charpentier, B. M. (2015). “Effects of a Discrete Time Delay on an HIV Pandemic,” in Analysis, Modelling, Optimization, and Numerical Techniques: ICAMI, San Andres Island, Colombia, November 2013 Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics., eds. G. O. Tost and O. Vasilieva (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Carbon Stored Deep In Antarctic Waters Ended The Last Ice Age. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). The School Dropout Problem. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores, A. T. (2013). Children, incarcerated mothers and the child welfare system: A systematic review of the literature.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007). Court Hears Whether a Drug Statement Is Protected Free Speech for Students. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cochrane, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cochrane, 2003; van Opstal and Bordenstein, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Opstal and Bordenstein, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hornstein et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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