How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, A. (2012). Archaeology: A clash of symbols. Nature 483, 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sobel, H. W., and Suzuki, Y. (2008). Obituary: Yoji Totsuka (1942-2008). Nature 454, 954.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eccleston, A., Cesari, F., and Skipper, M. (2013). Transcription and epigenetics. Nature 502, 461.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marriner, N., Morhange, C., Kaniewski, D., and Carayon, N. (2014). Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Sci. Rep. 4, 5554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bays, D. H. (2011). A New History of Christianity in China. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ayala, J. L., García-Cámara, B., Prieto, M., Ruggiero, M., and Sicard, G. eds. (2011). Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Partap, S., and Fisher, P. G. (2010). “Embryonal Tumors,” in Pediatric CNS Tumors Pediatric Oncology., eds. N. Gupta, A. Banerjee, and D. Haas-Kogan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 89–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). NASA Wants to Send an Airplane to Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Chemical Assessments: An Agencywide Strategy May Help EPA Address Unmet Needs for Integrated Risk Information System Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederique, N. P. (2010). The effectiveness of school based intensive probation for reducing recidivism: An evaluation of Maryland’s Spotlight on Schools program.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007). Supreme Court Weighs Maine’s Tobacco Law. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson, 2012; Sobel and Suzuki, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sobel and Suzuki, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Marriner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroprosthetics
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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