How to format your references using the Frontiers in Consciousness Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Consciousness Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mardis, E. R. (2011). A decade’s perspective on DNA sequencing technology. Nature 470, 198–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rost, S., and Revenaugh, J. (2001). Seismic detection of rigid zones at the top of the core. Science 294, 1911–1914.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deuss, A., Irving, J. C. E., and Woodhouse, J. H. (2010). Regional variation of inner core anisotropy from seismic normal mode observations. Science 328, 1018–1020.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Delahaye, J., Hassel, J., Lindell, R., Sillanpää, M., Paalanen, M., Seppä, H., et al. (2003). Low-noise current amplifier based on mesoscopic Josephson junction. Science 299, 1045–1048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. M. E., Arashi, M., and Tabatabaey, S. M. M. (2014). Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Regge, D. (2012). La colonscopia virtuale: Guida pratica all’esame, dalle indicazioni all’interpretazione dei dati. , ed. G. Iussich Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandkuhl, K. (2016). “On the Role of Enterprise Modelling in Engineering Cyber-Physical Systems,” in Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 15th International Conference, BIR 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 15–16, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. V. Řepa and T. Bruckner (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Consciousness Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “Scarface,” The Beloved Bear Of Yellowstone Park, Has Been Killed. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perez, R. W. (2017). Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block? The Impact of Prior Military Service on Hiring Managers’ Perceptions of Warmth, Competence, and Hirability.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017). A Conductor Celebrates Monteverdi’s 450th. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mardis, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Rost and Revenaugh, 2001; Mardis, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rost and Revenaugh, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Delahaye et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Consciousness Research
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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