How to format your references using the Frontiers in Consciousness Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Consciousness Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eddy, S. R. (2006). Genetics. Total information awareness for worm genetics. Science 311, 1381–1382.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowry, A. R., and Pérez-Gussinyé, M. (2011). The role of crustal quartz in controlling Cordilleran deformation. Nature 471, 353–357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteman, G., Hope, C., and Wadhams, P. (2013). Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature 499, 401–403.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bell, J. F., 3rd, Lemmon, M. T., Duxbury, T. C., Hubbard, M. Y. H., Wolff, M. J., Squyres, S. W., et al. (2005). Solar eclipses of Phobos and Deimos observed from the surface of Mars. Nature 436, 55–57.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tiwari, A., Gerhardt, R. A., and Szutkowska, M. (2016). Advanced Ceramic Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krishnan, J. M., Deshpande, A. P., and Kumar, P. B. S. eds. (2010). Rheology of Complex Fluids. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Owens, L. (2016). “Amsterdam Squatters on the Road: A Case Study in Territorial and Relational Urban Politics,” in A European Youth Revolt: European Perspectives on Youth Protest and Social Movements in the 1980s, eds. K. Andresen and B. van der Steen (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Consciousness Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Nikola Tesla. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Free Legal Services for the Poor: Increased Coordination, Community Legal Education, and Outreach Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza, K. M. (2008). The antecedents of automotive brand loyalty and repurchase intentions.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007). Rostropovich Is Laid to Rest Near Another Russian Titan. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eddy, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Eddy, 2006; Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bell et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Consciousness Research
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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