How to format your references using the Frontiers in Consciousness Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Consciousness Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kupferschmidt, K. (2015). Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science 349, 223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Drake, M. J., and Righter, K. (2002). Determining the composition of the Earth. Nature 416, 39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patt, A. G., Ogallo, L., and Hellmuth, M. (2007). Sustainability. Learning from 10 years of climate outlook forums in Africa. Science 318, 49–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka, H., Homma, K., Iwane, A. H., Katayama, E., Ikebe, R., Saito, J., et al. (2002). The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V. Nature 415, 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wittcoff, H. A., Reuben, B. G., and Plotkin, J. S. (2012). Industrial Organic Chemicals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bennetzen, J. L., and Hake, S. C. eds. (2009). Handbook of Maize: Its Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hung, W. (2015). “Problem-Based Learning: Conception, Practice, and Future,” in Authentic Problem Solving and Learning in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Singapore and Beyond Education Innovation Series., eds. Y. H. Cho, I. S. Caleon, and M. Kapur (Singapore: Springer), 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Consciousness Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017). “Doomsday” Vault Flooded After Permafrost Melts Due To Climate Change. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Maritime Administration: Efforts To Improve Data on the Federal Ship Financing Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pradhan, S. H. (2017). User Interface Design, Database Connectivity, and Security in Fortified Cards.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016). Markets Skittish Over Deutsche’s Exposure. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kupferschmidt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Drake and Righter, 2002; Kupferschmidt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Drake and Righter, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Consciousness Research
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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