How to format your references using the Communist and Post-Communist Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communist and Post-Communist Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heintz, N., 2003. Biomedicine. Ataxin-1 regulators in the spotlight. Science 301, 59–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krabbenhoft, D.P., Sunderland, E.M., 2013. Environmental science. Global change and mercury. Science 341, 1457–1458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nilius, N., Wallis, T.M., Ho, W., 2002. Development of one-dimensional band structure in artificial gold chains. Science 297, 1853–1856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fu, Z.Q., Guo, M., Jeong, B.-R., Tian, F., Elthon, T.E., Cerny, R.L., Staiger, D., Alfano, J.R., 2007. A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity. Nature 447, 284–288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko, V.E., Ossicini, S., 2012. What is What in the Nanoworld. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Cheng, L., Liu, Q., Ronzhin, A. (Eds.), 2016. Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2016: 13th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2016, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 6-8, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mariconda, C., Tonolo, A., 2016. Inclusion/Exclusion, in: Tonolo, A. (Ed.), Discrete Calculus: Methods for Counting, UNITEXT. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communist and Post-Communist Studies.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Dying Snake-Bitten Scientist Records His Last Day Of Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Inquiry Into Allegations of Improprieties at the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (No. FPCD-83-23). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Augspurger, B.A., 2014. Teacher Perceptions of Effective School Leadership Using Twenty-first Century Skills and Knowledge (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. On Infrastructure, Claims That Don’t Quite Get Off the Ground. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heintz, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Heintz, 2003; Krabbenhoft and Sunderland, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krabbenhoft and Sunderland, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunist and Post-Communist Studies
AbbreviationCommunist Post-Communist Stud.
ISSN (print)0967-067X
Sociology and Political Science

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