How to format your references using the Communist and Post-Communist Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communist and Post-Communist Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes, P.J., 2010. Medicine. Neutrophils find smoke attractive. Science 330, 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hazeltine, E., Ivry, R.B., 2002. Neuroscience. Can we teach the cerebellum new tricks? Science 296, 1979–1980.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dalton, C.A., Langmuir, C.H., Gale, A., 2014. Geophysical and geochemical evidence for deep temperature variations beneath mid-ocean ridges. Science 344, 80–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, F., Wang, Z., Dong, W., Sun, C., Wang, H., Song, A., He, L., Fang, W., Chen, F., Teng, N., 2014. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms of embryo abortion during chrysanthemum cross breeding. Sci. Rep. 4, 6536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogers, D.W., 2010. Concise Physical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meersman, R., Dillon, T., Herrero, P. (Eds.), 2010. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems, OTM 2010: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, IS, DOA and ODBASE, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, October 25-29, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Love, J.C., Derrick, S.M., Wiersema, J.M., 2011. Long Bone Fractures, in: Derrick, S.M., Wiersema, J.M. (Eds.), Skeletal Atlas of Child Abuse. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communist and Post-Communist Studies.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. This Fish Hijacks Females Eggs And Clones Itself [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Air Force Technology Development Underway Throughout the Aerospace Industry (No. B-179665). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh, W., 2009. Elderly Vietnamese’ perceptions of the effects of Adult Day Health Care services on their mental and physical well-being (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barnes, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Barnes, 2010; Hazeltine and Ivry, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hazeltine and Ivry, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunist and Post-Communist Studies
AbbreviationCommunist Post-Communist Stud.
ISSN (print)0967-067X
Sociology and Political Science

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