How to format your references using the Communist and Post-Communist Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communist and Post-Communist Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dainton, M., 2001. Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature 410, 324–5; disussion 326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brawley, C., Matunis, E., 2004. Regeneration of male germline stem cells by spermatogonial dedifferentiation in vivo. Science 304, 1331–1334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbot, S., Lapusta, N., Avouac, J.-P., 2012. Under the hood of the earthquake machine: toward predictive modeling of the seismic cycle. Science 336, 707–710.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nizak, C., Monier, S., del Nery, E., Moutel, S., Goud, B., Perez, F., 2003. Recombinant antibodies to the small GTPase Rab6 as conformation sensors. Science 300, 984–987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai, A., 2011. Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Arnoldner, C., 2015. Manual of Otologic Surgery. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Kern, M.L., Adler, A., Waters, L.E., White, M.A., 2015. Measuring Whole-School Well-being in Students and Staff, in: White, M.A., Murray, A.S. (Eds.), Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-Being in Schools. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communist and Post-Communist Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Antifreeze from Ticks Offer Frostbite Protection for Mice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Transportation Security: DHS Should Address Key Challenges before Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program (No. GAO-06-982). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta, P., 2017. Enhanced acquisition of data in the presence of transfaulty nodes in a wireless sensor network (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haikalis, G., 2015. Don’t Rehab La Guardia Airport. Close It. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dainton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brawley and Matunis, 2004; Dainton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brawley and Matunis, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nizak et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunist and Post-Communist Studies
AbbreviationCommunist Post-Communist Stud.
ISSN (print)0967-067X
Sociology and Political Science

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