How to format your references using the Clinical Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gibson G. Human genetics. GTEx detects genetic effects. Science. 2015;348(6235):640–641.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ackland GJ, Butler D. Pack formation in cycling and orienteering. Nature. 2001;413(6852):127.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pierce SE, Clack JA, Hutchinson JR. Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature. 2012;486(7404):523–526.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Szenker-Ravi E, Altunoglu U, Leushacke M, et al. Author Correction: RSPO2 inhibition of RNF43 and ZNRF3 governs limb development independently of LGR4/5/6. Nature. 2018;561(7722):E7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Minelli M, Chambers M, Dhiraj A. Big Data, Big Analytics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Krannich RS. People, Places and Landscapes: Social Change in High Amenity Rural Areas. (Luloff AE, Field DR, eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bayraktar E, Katundi D, Ayari F, et al. Damage Analysis of the Ceramic Reinforced Steel Matrix Composites Sheets: Experimental and Numerical Study. In: Proulx T, ed. Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. New York, NY: Springer; 2011:21–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Fallstreak holes, aka Hole Punch Clouds. IFLScience. 2013.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education Information: Production and Quality Deserve Increased Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sharma SP. U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. Back in Baltimore, Anthony Decides to Speak, but Doesn’t Say Much. New York Times. August 2, 2017:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Spine Surgery
AbbreviationClin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)2380-0186
ISSN (online)2380-0194
ScopeClinical Neurology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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