How to format your references using the Clinical Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Balibar S. The enigma of supersolidity. Nature. 2010;464(7286):176–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fossum A, Carlsson M. High-frequency acoustic waves are not sufficient to heat the solar chromosphere. Nature. 2005;435(7044):919–921.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Unal E, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Koshland D. DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science. 2007;317(5835):245–248.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Lemche E, Giampietro VP, Brammer MJ, et al. Somatization severity associated with postero-medial complex structures. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1032.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Qu D. Manufacturing and Managing Customer-Driven Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Deindl E, Kupatt C, eds. Therapeutic Neovascularization–Quo Vadis? Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Matta A, Runchina M, Tolio T. Automated flow lines with shared buffer. In: Liberopoulos G, Papadopoulos CT, Tan B, et al., eds. Stochastic Modeling of Manufacturing Systems: Advances in Design, Performance Evaluation, and Control Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:99–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. NASA Has A Huge Announcement To Make - Here’s How You Can Watch Live. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. USDA Proposal for Handling Conversions in ADPE Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pigott C. School Resource Officers and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Discovering Trends of Expulsions in Public Schools. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. After Stand on Gays, New Name Urged for Margaret Court Arena. New York Times. May 31, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Spine Surgery
AbbreviationClin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)2380-0186
ISSN (online)2380-0194
ScopeClinical Neurology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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