How to format your references using the Clinical Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Neuzil CE. Osmotic generation of “anomalous” fluid pressures in geological environments. Nature. 2000;403(6766):182–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yue Y, Angell CA. Clarifying the glass-transition behaviour of water by comparison with hyperquenched inorganic glasses. Nature. 2004;427(6976):717–720.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kwak S-H, Shen R, Schiefelbein J. Positional signaling mediated by a receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis. Science. 2005;307(5712):1111–1113.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Valentine DL, Kessler JD, Redmond MC, et al. Propane respiration jump-starts microbial response to a deep oil spill. Science. 2010;330(6001):208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Welsh AH. Aspects of Statistical Inference: Welsh/Aspects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
1. Battaglia E. Annegamento Soccorso tecnico e sanitario. (Baghin A, ed.). Milano: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lazazzara A, Ghiringhelli C. Developing Social Leadership: Cultural and Technological Influences. In: Mola L, Pennarola F, Za S, eds. From Information to Smart Society: Environment, Politics and Economics. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:31–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1. Davis J. New Strain Of “Super” Gonorrhea Could Be Resistant To All Antibiotics. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Inadequate Planning Increases Risk of Computer Failures in Los Angeles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thomas EM. Perceptions of educational leaders’ efficacy and leadership capacity upon preliminary administrative credential completion at California State University, Long Beach. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Soloski A. As Battered as Job, He Bills by the Hour. New York Times. February 28, 2017:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Spine Surgery
AbbreviationClin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)2380-0186
ISSN (online)2380-0194
ScopeClinical Neurology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles