How to format your references using the Clinical Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rando O. A biologist despairs over the difficulty of demonstrating heritability of chromatin states. Nature. 2008;454(7201):141.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chenn A, Walsh CA. Regulation of cerebral cortical size by control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors. Science. 2002;297(5580):365–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Beachy PA, Karhadkar SS, Berman DM. Tissue repair and stem cell renewal in carcinogenesis. Nature. 2004;432(7015):324–331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Ungar G, Liu Y, Zeng X, et al. Giant supramolecular liquid crystal lattice. Science. 2003;299(5610):1208–1211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kimberlin L, zur Linden A, Ruoff L. Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Zembylas M, Schutz PA, eds. Methodological Advances in Research on Emotion and Education. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Deutsch M. Interdependence and Psychological Orientation. In: Deutsch M, ed. Morton Deutsch: A Pioneer in Developing Peace Psychology. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:105–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Without a magnetic field, any life on exoplanets may be doomed. IFLScience. 2013.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Transportation: Better Data Needed to Assess Length of New Starts Process, and Options Exist to Expedite Project Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gerhart T. Convex optimization techniques and their application in hyperspectral video processing. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Isherwood C. A Milkman Returns, Emotional as Ever. New York Times. December 21, 2015:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Spine Surgery
AbbreviationClin. Spine Surg.
ISSN (print)2380-0186
ISSN (online)2380-0194
ScopeClinical Neurology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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