How to format your references using the Clinical Sarcoma Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Sarcoma Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smith CL. How the LHC came to be. Nature. 2007;448:281–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Godley LA, Mondragón A. Molecular biology. Preference by exclusion. Science. 2011;331:1017–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Harmon JP, Moran NA, Ives AR. Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution. Science. 2009;323:1347–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kiel MJ, He S, Ashkenazi R, Gentry SN, Teta M, Kushner JA, et al. Haematopoietic stem cells do not asymmetrically segregate chromosomes or retain BrdU. Nature. 2007;449:238–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sehgal V. Supply Chain as Strategic Asset. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Hage J, Akkermans B, editors. Introduction to Law. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. El Ouali A, Sefrioui S, Mudry J, Fassi Fihri O, Essahlaoui A, Marah H. Contribution of Isotopes of the Water Molecule to Determine Recharge Altitude of the Main Springs Welling Up in the Middle Atlas Limestone (Morocco). In: Mudry J, Zwahlen F, Bertrand C, LaMoreaux JW, editors. H2Karst Research in Limestone Hydrogeology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Sarcoma Research.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Why Save A Computer Virus? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Update of Allocation of Funds and Passenger Facility Charges, 1992-94. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jul. Report No.: RCED-95-225FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Collins K. Learning to live in the layers: Traveling soul’s way through poetry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. As Jaded as Bill Murray Trapped in a Time Warp. New York Times. 2016 Aug 17;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Sarcoma Research
AbbreviationClin. Sarcoma Res.
ISSN (online)2045-3329

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