How to format your references using the Clinical Sarcoma Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Sarcoma Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bell J. Predicting disease using genomics. Nature. 2004;429:453–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Meissner A, Jaenisch R. Generation of nuclear transfer-derived pluripotent ES cells from cloned Cdx2-deficient blastocysts. Nature. 2006;439:212–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhao Y, Samal E, Srivastava D. Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis. Nature. 2005;436:214–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liang Y-L, Khoshouei M, Deganutti G, Glukhova A, Koole C, Peat TS, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the active, Gs-protein complexed, human CGRP receptor. Nature. 2018;561:492–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nicu L, Leïchlé T. Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Martens UM, editor. Small Molecules in Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. van Heesbeen RGHP, Medema RH. Kif15: A Useful Target for Anti-cancer Therapy? In: Frank KF, editor. Kinesins and Cancer. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 77–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Sarcoma Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Convert Cancer Cells Into Harmless Immune Cells [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Mar. Report No.: 144387.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Manley Lima MC. Commuter Students’ Social Integration: The Relationship Between Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Sense of Belonging [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kleiman K. What to Do With an Empty Storefront? A Makeshift Art Gallery. New York Times. 2010 Mar 12;A21B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Sarcoma Research
AbbreviationClin. Sarcoma Res.
ISSN (online)2045-3329

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