How to format your references using the Journal of Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vihinen, M. (2015). No more hidden solutions in bioinformatics. Nature, 521, 261.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprent, J., & Tough, D. F. (2001). T cell death and memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293, 245–248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berger, J., Swenson, J. E., & Persson, I. L. (2001). Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291, 1036–1039.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zarenia, M., Perali, A., Neilson, D., & Peeters, F. M. (2014). Enhancement of electron-hole superfluidity in double few-layer graphene. Scientific Reports, 4, 7319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, W. (2011). E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer.
An edited book
Esser, K., Löttge, U., Beyschlag, W., & Murata, J. (Eds.). (2007). Progress in Botany. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Devlin, N., & Parkin, D. (2007). Guidance to users of EQ-5D value sets. In A. Szende, M. Oppe, & N. Devlin (Eds.), EQ-5D Value Sets: Inventory, Comparative Review and User Guide (pp. 39–52). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Morphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 3). 2014, The Year That Was: Science + Technology.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening (No. GAO-14-426T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford, R. R. (2012). Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. (2015, June 27). In an Uber World, Fortune Favors the Freelancer. New York Times, p. BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vihinen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Sprent & Tough, 2001; Vihinen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sprent & Tough, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Berger, Swenson, & Persson, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zarenia, Perali, Neilson, & Peeters, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Morphology
AbbreviationJ. Morphol.
ISSN (print)0362-2525
ISSN (online)1097-4687
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

Other styles