How to format your references using the Journal of Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kalirai, J. S. (2012). The age of the Milky Way inner halo. Nature, 486, 90–92.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibbs, R. A., & Nelson, D. L. (2003). Human genetics. Primate shadow play. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299, 1331–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonzalez, S., Kitchener, A. C., & Lister, A. M. (2000). Survival of the Irish elk into the Holocene. Nature, 405, 753–754.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Neutze, R., Wouts, R., van der Spoel, D., Weckert, E., & Hajdu, J. (2000). Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses. Nature, 406, 752–757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni, L., & Perdomo, I. (2013). Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Fløistad, G. (Ed.). (2010). Philosophy of Religion (1st ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahonen, P., Alahuhta, P., Daskala, B., Delaitre, S., Hert, P. D., Lindner, R., … Verlinden, M. (2010). Threats and vulnerabilities. In P. Alahuhta, B. Daskala, S. Delaitre, P. D. Hert, R. Lindner, I. Maghiros, … E. Vildjiounaite (Eds.), Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (pp. 143–178). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Morphology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 15). Five Second Rule More than Wishful Thinking?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Space Surveillance Network: Appropriate Controls Needed Over Data Access (No. GAO-02-402RNI). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Manglano, J. (2013). Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, May 22). New York Investigates Insurer Payments to Banks. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kalirai, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs & Nelson, 2003; Kalirai, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibbs & Nelson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Gonzalez, Kitchener, & Lister, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Neutze, Wouts, van der Spoel, Weckert, & Hajdu, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Morphology
AbbreviationJ. Morphol.
ISSN (print)0362-2525
ISSN (online)1097-4687
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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