How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, David. 2002. “Marie Curie Doesn’t Live Here, Japanese Women Say.” Nature 419 (6909): 768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke, Catherine F., and Christopher M. Allan. 2015. “Biochemistry: Unexpected Role for Vitamin B2.” Nature 522 (7557): 427–428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schibler, U., J. A. Ripperger, and S. A. Brown. 2001. “Circadian Rhythms. Chronobiology--Reducing Time.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5529): 437–438.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Baldwin, Mark P., David B. Stephenson, David W. J. Thompson, Timothy J. Dunkerton, Andrew J. Charlton, and Alan O’Neill. 2003. “Stratospheric Memory and Skill of Extended-Range Weather Forecasts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5633): 636–640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner, Thomas. 2016. Merger Arbitrage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chacón Rebollo, Tomás. 2014. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications. Edited by Roger Lewandowski. Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chela-Flores, Julián. 2014. “Fluid Mechanics and Systems Biology for Understanding the Cosmic Distribution of Life: A Review.” In Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Physics, Engineering and the Environment, edited by Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti, Jaime Klapp, and Eloy Sira, 107–120. Environmental Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “What’s Going On In This Trippy Image Of Yosemite National Park?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Savings Possible by Buying Automatic Data Processing Equipment or by Leasing It From Commercial Leasing Firms. B-114829. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noxon, Corey. 2017. “Sedentism, Agriculture, and the Neolithic Demographic Transition: Insights from Jōmon Paleodemography.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, Kelly. 2016. “With City Passing By in a Blur, a Star Adds Yet Another Title.” New York Times, November 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2002; Clarke and Allan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clarke and Allan 2015)
  • Three authors: (Schibler, Ripperger, and Brown 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Baldwin et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

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