How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bentley, David R. 2004. “Genomes for Medicine.” Nature 429 (6990): 440–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burlini, Luigi, and Giulio Di Toro. 2008. “Geophysics. Volcanic Symphony in the Lab.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5899): 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Farkas, I., D. Helbing, and T. Vicsek. 2002. “Mexican Waves in an Excitable Medium.” Nature 419 (6903): 131–132.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Takagi, Junichi, Yuting Yang, Jin-Huan Liu, Jia-Huai Wang, and Timothy A. Springer. 2003. “Complex between Nidogen and Laminin Fragments Reveals a Paradigmatic Beta-Propeller Interface.” Nature 424 (6951): 969–974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stewart, Roberta. 2012. Plautus and Roman Slavery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ruzhansky, Michael, and Jens Wirth, eds. 2011. Modern Aspects of the Theory of Partial Differential Equations. Vol. 216. Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakamura, S., A. Kimura, M. Ohta, T. Fujii, S. Fukutani, K. Furutaka, S. Goko, et al. 2015. “Precise Measurements of Neutron Capture Cross Sections for LLFPs and MAs.” In Nuclear Back-End and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal: Beyond the Fukushima Accident, edited by Ken Nakajima, 39–46. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Get Ready To Celebrate ‘Galactic Tick Day’ This September.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Risk and Control of the Software Maintenance Process. 132203. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, Narges. 2010. “Analyzing the Correlates of Patients’ Adoption of Preventative Health Services: Perceived Risk, Cost and Availability of Health Care Services.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. “Where Surrealism Makes Life Bearable.” New York Times, December 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bentley 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bentley 2004; Burlini and Di Toro 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burlini and Di Toro 2008)
  • Three authors: (Farkas, Helbing, and Vicsek 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Takagi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles