How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bréon, François-Marie. 2006. “Climate. How Do Aerosols Affect Cloudiness and Climate?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5787): 623–624.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanrieder, Jörg, and Andrew G. Ewing. 2014. “Spatial Elucidation of Spinal Cord Lipid- and Metabolite- Regulations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanna, Rachel A., Robert L. Campbell, and Peter L. Davies. 2008. “Calcium-Bound Structure of Calpain and Its Mechanism of Inhibition by Calpastatin.” Nature 456 (7220): 409–412.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Leventhal, Audie G., Yongchang Wang, Mingliang Pu, Yifeng Zhou, and Yuanye Ma. 2003. “GABA and Its Agonists Improved Visual Cortical Function in Senescent Monkeys.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5620): 812–815.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Placzek, Dietmar, Rolf Bielecki, Manfred Messing, and Frank Schwarzer Tunnel. 2016. Zielgenau Bis Ans Ende Des Tunnels. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Klepaczko, Janusz R., and Tomasz Łodygowski, eds. 2009. Advances in Constitutive Relations Applied in Computer Codes. Vol. 515. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertarelli, F., S. Padoa, G. Guaraldi, E. Genovese, M. Corradini, B. Mayeku, and J. Kilwake. 2011. “Low Cost Wireless Technology and Digital Board for Education in Rural Kenya.” In E-Technologies and Networks for Development: First International Conference, ICeND 2011, Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania, August 3-5, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Jim James Yonazi, Eliamani Sedoyeka, Ezendu Ariwa, and Eyas El-Qawasmeh, 52–60. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “New Neurons Erase Old Memories In Mice.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Transportation Infrastructure: Supplemental Information on the Federal Highway Administration’s Project Selection Process for Five Discretionary Programs. RCED-98-179R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman, Kenneth L. 2017. “Perceived and Preferred Organizational Culture on Behavior Intentions in the Hospitality Industry.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 2011. “Living With the Sweet Smell of Sap.” New York Times, March 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bréon 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bréon 2006; Hanrieder and Ewing 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hanrieder and Ewing 2014)
  • Three authors: (Hanna, Campbell, and Davies 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Leventhal et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles