How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martinson, Brian C. 2007. “Universities and the Money Fix.” Nature 449 (7159): 141–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Taia T., and Peter Palese. 2011. “Biochemistry. Catching a Moving Target.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6044): 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buckley, Stephen A., Katherine A. Clark, and Richard P. Evershed. 2004. “Complex Organic Chemical Balms of Pharaonic Animal Mummies.” Nature 431 (7006): 294–299.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Smith, Kenneth D., David von Seggern, Geoffrey Blewitt, Leiph Preston, John G. Anderson, Brian P. Wernicke, and James L. Davis. 2004. “Evidence for Deep Magma Injection beneath Lake Tahoe, Nevada-California.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5688): 1277–1280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Twomey, Brian. 2011. Inside the Currency Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
James, Daniel A. 2016. Sensors and Wearable Technologies in Sport: Technologies, Trends and Approaches for Implementation. Edited by Nicola Petrone. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bradshaw, Heather B. 2008. “Other Cannabimimetic Lipid Signaling Molecules.” In Cannabinoids and the Brain, edited by Attila Köfalvi, 47–58. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Breathtaking 3D Model Of The Pillars Of Creation.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. FCC: Interconnection and Resale Obligations Pertaining to Commercial Mobile Radio Services. OGC-96-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilmore, Kathy D. 2010. “With Their Heads in the Lion’s Mouth: Exploring the Novels of Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison through Social Contract Theory.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lear, Sophia. 2010. “Mirror, Mirror.” New York Times, October 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martinson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Martinson 2007; Wang and Palese 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Palese 2011)
  • Three authors: (Buckley, Clark, and Evershed 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Smith et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles