How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, Zhengyu. 2011. “Atmospheric Science. Glacial Cycles and Indian Monsoon--a Southern Push.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6043): 706–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffelt, Seth B., and Karin E. de Visser. 2014. “Cancer: Inflammation Lights the Way to Metastasis.” Nature 507 (7490): 48–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugden, Andrew, Jesse Smith, and Elizabeth Pennisi. 2008. “The Future of Forests.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1435.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Klausmeier, Christopher A., Elena Litchman, Tanguy Daufresne, and Simon A. Levin. 2004. “Optimal Nitrogen-to-Phosphorus Stoichiometry of Phytoplankton.” Nature 429 (6988): 171–174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higgs, Paul G., and Teresa K. Attwood. 2004. Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Buchmann, Johannes A. 2013. Introduction to Public Key Infrastructures. Edited by Evangelos Karatsiolis and Alexander Wiesmaier. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jaroszewicz, Leszek R., Anna Kurzych, Zbigniew Krajewski, Jerzy K. Kowalski, and Krzysztof P. Teisseyre. 2016. “FOSREM: Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events and Phenomena Monitoring: Construction, Investigation and Area of Application.” In Seismic Behaviour and Design of Irregular and Complex Civil Structures II, edited by Zbigniew Zembaty and Mario De Stefano, 49–64. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “What’s The Most Dangerous Place On Earth?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Examination of the Pricing of a Negotiated Fixed-Price Incentive Contract Awarded on a Noncompetitive Basis. 103244. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan, Taylor E. 2017. “A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr., and A. L. Baker. 2016. “Quest for New Life Ends in Tangle of Gang Ties.” New York Times, August 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Liu 2011; Coffelt and de Visser 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coffelt and de Visser 2014)
  • Three authors: (Sugden, Smith, and Pennisi 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Klausmeier et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles