How to format your references using the Africa Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Africa Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dillehay, Tom D. 2002. “Archaeology. Climate and Human Migrations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5594): 764–765.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grande, Cristina, and Nipam H. Patel. 2009. “Nodal Signalling Is Involved in Left-Right Asymmetry in Snails.” Nature 457 (7232): 1007–1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, Wolfgang, Raya Muttarak, and Erich Striessnig. 2014. “Environment and Development. Universal Education Is Key to Enhanced Climate Adaptation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6213): 1061–1062.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Whitby, F. G., E. I. Masters, L. Kramer, J. R. Knowlton, Y. Yao, C. C. Wang, and C. P. Hill. 2000. “Structural Basis for the Activation of 20S Proteasomes by 11S Regulators.” Nature 408 (6808): 115–120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciana, Paul. 2011. New Frontiers in Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liu, Honghai, Naoyuki Kubota, Xiangyang Zhu, Rüdiger Dillmann, and Dalin Zhou, eds. 2015. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIRA 2015, Portsmouth, UK, August 24-27, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9244. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tecilazich, Francesco, Thanh L. Dinh, and Aristidis Veves. 2012. “Diabetic Neuropathy.” In Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management, edited by Gautam V. Shrikhande and James F. McKinsey, 39–51. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Africa Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Library of Congress Opens Online Exhibit for Carl Sagan’s Papers.” IFLScience. IFLScience.’s-papers/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Aviation Safety: Better Data and Targeted FAA Efforts Needed to Identify and Address Safety Issues of Small Air Cargo Carriers. GAO-09-614. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lange, Alexander Werner. 2006. “Calcineurin/NFATc1/DSCR1 Pathway Function in Cardiac Valvuloseptal Development and Down Syndrome-Related Phenotypes.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2008. “Justices Won’t Hear Appeal On Drugs for Terminally Ill.” New York Times, January 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dillehay 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dillehay 2002; Grande and Patel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grande and Patel 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lutz, Muttarak, and Striessnig 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Whitby et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrica Review
ISSN (print)0974-4053
ISSN (online)0974-4061
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles